Investing for Beginners .EU, investing The person that is buying a share of stock is convinced he knows something that the other person who's selling it to him does not know. There's no zero sum game in Wall Street.
Bernard Madoff

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(Are you looking for investment definition?)   Investments are instruments that allow us to receive a higher amount of money than was spent. If someone spends 10 euros or dollars and he knows that he will receive

Value Stocks
  Value stocks are opposite to growth stocks and attract investors not by growth perspectives but by stable cash and dividend flow. Market ratios (P/E, P/B and other) of value stocks are low and together with high

Value Penny Stocks
  Value penny stocks are stocks that have characteristics of both: value stock and penny stock. Investment in value penny stocks isn’t very popular, because stock investors who seek for safety invest in norma

Operating Leverage
  An operating leverage is a company’s EBIT (earnings before taxes and financial operations) sensitivity to changes of sales. As the sensitivity is measured to operating income (close to EBIT), the

Return on Investment
  Return on investment (ROI) is a percentage that shows profitability of an investment or investment portfolio. Return on investment calculation:   CALCULATION:   Return on investment = net in

EV/S Ratio
Enterprise Value to Sales Ratio   EV/S ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its sales. This multiple is important when company is unprofitable or profits margins are very low and turnaround is expected in

Relative Valuation
Comparative analysis    Relative valuation is stock valuation method that gained its popularity because of simplicity and practical importance. The key principle of relative valuation is about valuation multi

DCF Valuation
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis   DCF valuation might be applied to any asset that generates positive free cash flow or is expected to generate that cash flow in the future. DCF valuation might be directly applied t

  OIBDA or also called operating income before depreciation and amortization is a financial measure used to represent specific type of an income. There are many types of income and each of those has some advantages

profitability Margins
  profitability margins are ratios that show how profitable company’s activity is. There may be many kinds of profitability margins. Normally profitability means some kind of profit divided by revenue. But al

  EBITDA margin is a profitability margin that shows how much of EBITDA earns company’s revenue relatively. The EBITDA margin is the best for profitability comparison of the companies if you want to measure e

Profit Margin
  Profit margin normally refers to net profit margin, which is net profit divided by sales. But one should remember that profit might be of different kinds (net profit, pretax profit, EBIT, EBITDA and gross profit)

  ROE (Return on Equity) shows profitability of company’s book value. Company’s book value (equity) is equal to company’s assets less liabilities, and ROE is usually higher if company ha

  ROA (Return on Assets) shows what profits are earned by company’s assets. Of course, assets alone usually do not earn the profit, because most of the times profit is the result of know-how and hard work of

Investment Management Business
  Investment management business is a large part of a financial industry and is very important for investment banks and other investment companies because investment management business has quite good profitability

Net Income
  Net income (net profit) is a financial indicator of the company that shows the real profitability of the business in accordance to its capital structure. Net income is equal to all revenue and gains less all expe

Gross Margin
  Gross margin is profitability percentage that shows the ratio between gross income and revenue. Gross margin is usually calculated when there is a need to compare company’s competiveness and effectiveness i

Operating Income
  Operating income (operating profit) is the type of company’s profit that comes from operating activity. That means operating profit is lower than gross income by operating expenses but higher than pre-tax p

Operating Margin
  Operating margin is a profitability percentage that shows what company’s profit margin is before it pays interests and taxes. Operating margin simply ignores capital structure (because ignores financial act

  EBIT (also called Earnings Before Interest and Taxes) is a financial indicator of the company that provides information about company’s profitability while ignoring the impact of capital structure and corpo

Financial Analysis
  Financial analysis is an important part of investing, especially if investor wants better results from his investments. Of course it is possible to ignore financial analysis and make investment decisions based on

profitability Analysis
  The main purpose of profitability analysis is to determine the profit margin and compare it to the appropriate financial data. profitability should not be confused with return because profitability is based on so

  Return analysis is different from profitability analysis because usually return is measured as a profitability of the assets, investments, capital or other similar asset group but not as a profitability of the re

Strategic Financial Planning
  Strategic financial planning is a bit different from standard financial planning because standard financial planning focuses on a budget which is detailed estimation of financial statements when strategic financi

Asset Turnover Ratio
  Asset turnover ratio compares company’s sales and assets in order to identify the efficiency of assets used in the business. In simple words, it shows show much of sales are generated by company’s ass

Stocks and Commodities
  You may ask how stocks and commodities related are. And the answer is simple: everything is related and especially in financial markets. Normally, if some of the main asset class (as stocks) looses or gains

Asset Performance
  Asset performance is a return of an asset over some period. Usually performance is measured on annual basis. But basically performance of any asset depends on its riskiness and the period (most of the stocks and

  NOPAT (‘net operating profit after tax’ or ‘after tax operating profit’) is equal to operating profit less taxes. It is adjusted by tax rate because the part cost of debt which is part of

Return on Invested Capital
  Return on invested capital (ROIC) or also called return on capital is a financial ratio employed to measure nominal company’s return that is earned by capital invested in operating asset. Basically return o

Financial Ratios
  Financial ratios are ratios that are used in financial analysis or in other words that are using financial data of a company. Such financial data usually is found in financial statements (income statement, balanc

Fixed Asset Turnover
  Fixed asset turnover ratio is a financial ratio that measures how much of sales are created by company’s property, plant and equipment. The ‘higher asset turnover’ is the better, because it mean

Return on Capital Employed
  Return on capital employed ratio (ROCE) measures company’s return compared to its employed capital. Return in this case is some kind of profit (mostly EBIT or NOPAT) and the capital employed means equity ca

Interest Rate Spread
  ‘Interest rate spread’ is a very important measure for banks and other financial institutions. As money lending is the core business for most of the banks, it is very important that this operational s

Net Interest Margin
Net interest margin shows the profitability of the lending business for a bank or other financial institution. Lending business is the core business for most of the banks, and the profitability of this operational segmen

Cost/Income Ratio
  Cost/income ratio is very popular financial ratio in bank analysis. This ratio measures the relation of bank’s operating costs to operating income. Basically, lower ratio is better because means higher prof

Reserve Ratio
  Reserve ratio (reserve requirement or cash reserve ratio) is a ratio that is used by central bank of an area to regulate the financial market. This financial ratio compares the cash of the bank to the deposits th

Internal Rate of Return
  An internal rate of return (IRR) is a ratio used very often to measure a profitability of some investment project. IRR is determined as a discount rate when NPV of the project is equal to zero. If IRR is higher t

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