Investing for Beginners .EU, investing

investingforbeginners.eu Just as a cautious businessman avoids investing all his capital in one concern, so wisdom would probably admonish us also not to anticipate all our happiness from one quarter alone.
Sigmund Freud

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Investing in Gold (I)
I will not be the first, and probably also will not be the last, who spoke about the Gold Rush that shakes down the world for the last few years. Just in this time it is a little different than in the days when desired f
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Investing in Gold (II)
The upper limit of the price is even more difficult. In our times gold is not founded in streams as was shown in the movies. Now gold is mined from the deep earth and separated from gold dust, metal ore or rock. In natur
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_gold_ii-p0-i5

Investing in Uncertain Period
Investing always has some uncertainty, but there are some situations when rise even more questions than usually. The current situation is just like one of those uncertain periods. When the economic cycle so inconclusive,
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Investing in Africa
Investing in Africa even sounds a little extreme. But investing in Africa not only sound extremely - it is like this in fact. If we would distinguish developed and emerging markets, then most of the Africa’s countr
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_africa-p0-i8

Investing in Russia
  Investing in Russia has gotten really widely promoted for the last period. I can remember the talks that stocks in Russia are the cheapest over the world for not less than year. The fact, that those stocks are st
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_russia-p0-i9

Investment in Bulgaria
  Starting from the very beginning I will try to make clear why I am bullish about investing Bulgarian stock market. At first I would suggest to look at the chart below.   Five year Bulgarian stock market in
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_bulgaria-p0-i10

What to Do With Investments in Current Turbulence?
  The question is really not an easy one. The problem is that there is no left any good investments on this world. Let’s looks at the most topical investments classes:   Stocks. Even before
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/what_to_do_with_investments_in_current_turbulence-p0-i11

Investing in Land - Agricultural REITs
  Investing in land I have noticed an increased interest in agricultural land investments during the last period. And I can it understand completely. When stocks are so volatile and bonds may offer such low return
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_land_agricultural_reits-p0-i12

US Debt Relief
  Let me give you few facts at first that we would now what are we talking about: The General government gross debt in percent of GDP in the United States was reported at 83.21 percent of GDP in 2009 (90% of GDP
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/us_debt_relief-p0-i13

Where Are the Investment markets Moving Now?
  Some of the market participants call the current situation a “crisis” others are starting to be convinced that we are in a bear market. While others just don’t know how to call it. Well, I call
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Stocks Riskier than Bonds?
  It is so common that stocks are riskier investments than bonds; nobody is even considering this question. Would I doubt it? Of course not, stocks are stocks and bonds are bonds. But I would like to look at it fro
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stocks_riskier_than_bonds-p0-i15

Foundation of the Europe’s Financial market
  The key question in Europe now is how European Union will look after few years from now. This question is the most important at these days for all the Europe and may have affect to the entire world.   
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Bond Investment: Government Bonds and Corporate Bonds
  Corporate Bonds and Government Bonds   Today I want to discuss another untraditional topic. However, this topic concerns the most traditional investments – bonds. Bonds been used for very long time a
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/bond_investment_government_bonds_and_corporate_bonds-p0-i17

How ECB Is Affecting Investment markets?
  Today was announced very interesting news. The news is about the fact that ECB (European Central Banks) lends 489 billion of Euros to the banks. It is a really huge amount of capital that flows from ECB to the fi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/how_ecb_is_affecting_investment_markets-p0-i18

Problems in Greece: Is It Going to End?
  Greece sounds like a curse for all investors and all other participants of the financial market. Yes, it is a small country compared to the global or European economy by the size of a GDP or other economical indi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/problems_in_greece_is_it_going_to_end-p0-i19

How to Beat the Stock market
  Investing is good, but the real challenge for every portfolio manager is to beat the stock market, or beat the market. Of course the term ‘market’ is not very exact. In reality to beat the market is t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/how_to_beat_the_stock_market-p0-i20

Baltic Investment
  Baltic Stock Exchange   Baltic stock exchange now belongs to the world gigantic stock exchange NASDAQ OMX, and now is called NASDAQ OMX Baltic. Historically Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia had their own nati
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European Dividend Stocks
  Before getting to the exact stocks, at first, please let me explain why I have chosen European dividend stocks as a topic. For the beginning, lets solve the question why dividend stocks. The true is that many inv
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What means long term in investing?
When I talk to non-professional investors, I often get surprised on their interpretation of ‘long-term investment’. Of course, everyone wants to enjoy their lives and to do it fast, while not many are ready t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/what_means_long_term_in_investing-p0-i23

Is the Bubble of Commodities Going Down?
  It can be said that commodity bubble already went down. The prices of the most commodities have slumped significantly during several last months. But was there really a bubble? Yes, the prices have
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/is_the_bubble_of_commodities_going_down-p0-i24

Putting Investment Indicators from Economy to Good Use
Putting investment indicators from economy to good use People in various professions – journalists, stock market traders, businessmen, or individuals looking at investing in property – usually refer to inv
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The Most Known Investors: Who are they?
  Regularly, a magazine is releasing its top 100 billionaires of the world. These are the investment giants and the masters of investing.  We all know that the investing world is a world of strategies and the
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/the_most_known_investors_who_are_they-p0-i26

Learning the basic investment concept: a good start in investing
The first step in investing is learning the investment concept itself. It is very important that you understand the basic rules in investing in order for your investment to profit and to prevent losses. As we all know,
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Investments
(Are you looking for investment definition?)   Investments are instruments that allow us to receive a higher amount of money than was spent. If someone spends 10 euros or dollars and he knows that he will receive
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Sortino Ratio
  Sortino ratio is a financial ratio that is used to measure the performance of investment portfolio and is very similar to a Sharpe ratio. The main difference between Sortino ratio and Sharpe ratio is that Sharpe
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Investing 10
Read the Top 10 most important things that you should do and 10 things that you should do not during investment process.   Those are the most important investing rules and you have to know and remember them. Of co
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Investing Top 10
  INVESTING 10 things that you should try to do:     Always have an investment strategy and follow it strictly. Set up an investment strategy (investing rules) even before beginning of investing: t
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Investing 10 NOT
  INVESTING 10 things that you should try NOT to do:     Do not let the emotions to take over control. The investment market is always full of emotions. It is very important to maintain sanity and
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Investment in Stocks
Stocks (shares) are investments that attract the most attention in financial markets, and perhaps stocks are worth it, because investors can expect the highest return from stocks among the range of traditional investme
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Investing for Beginners
  Investing can seem a hard thing to do for beginners. But investing for beginners isn‘t any harder than other things in the beginning. Many processes can look difficult until you don‘t know what is hid
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Investment in Bonds
Debt (fixed income) securities Bonds are fixed income securities and the principle of them is simple - the issuer of the bonds attracts the money from the investors and commits to pay back for the investors until end of
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Investing for Beginners - Trading Account
  a href="http://www.investingforbeginners.eu">Investing for beginners helps on many questions that every investor should solve in beginning of investment process or before it. One of such starting questions sho
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Investment in Cash
Bank (saving) Accounts, Deposits, Deposit Certificates, Treasure Bills, Money market Funds When we are talking about investment, cash is not only the real paper (or metal) money that are held in the wallet or under the
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Investment in Mutual Funds
Investment Funds (Collective Investment) Investment in mutual funds is one of the most popular types of investment. A mutual fund is just a large and well diversified investment portfolio of many securities, in which ca
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_mutual_funds

Investment in Commodities
Investment in Oil, gold, Silver, Copper, Wheat  Commodities (raw materials) are indeed a tangible asset class, but it can be also assigned to financial investments, because in current days most investments in commo
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Asset Management
Definition    Asset management which also is called as investment management has many similarities to finance management but investment management is more specific and narrow area of finance. Invest
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Investment in Property
Investment in housing and commercial real estate I don‘t know why, but historically in most places almost every countryman becomes to a property investment expert, or at least he thinks he is. And perhaps that's q
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Investment in Collectibles
  Many kinds of collectibles may also be considered as investments, but their value and benefits are much more elusive, than more serious traditional investment instruments. Works of art, stamps, antiques, coins,
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Direct Investment
Investment in Tangible Assets   Direct investment are very wide issue to study, but it‘s not so close to traditional investing. Direct investments are more related with business development and would depend
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Investment in Futures
  Futures - derivative financial instruments, which can help to acquire some object in the future with pre-agreed price.In the case of futures, the seller undertakes to sell the object, while the buyer to purchase
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Investment in Forwards
Forwards – derivative financial instruments almost identical to the future contracts. This contract represents the parties committed to sell and buy the object at the predetermined time and price.Difference between
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Investment in Options
  Options are very known derivatives and especially popular among investing speculators. Options has some attraction: every successful prediction can grow up invested amount a lot of times very quickly and potentia
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_options

Investment in Index-Linked Bonds
  Index-linked bonds are also known as structured bonds. This product is more popular in immature investment markets, where investors are not sufficiently educated. Diversity of index-linked bonds can be very high,
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Investment in Index Funds
  Investment index funds are contrast to the actively managed funds. These funds do not try to exceed the benchmark, openly saying that just going to keep with it.And the serious advantage of them – applied f
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_index_funds

Investment in ETF Funds
ETF (Exchange-Traded Fund) Investment in ETFs has become increasingly popular pushing out traditional investment funds. Few main factors added to popularity of this investment: availability of ETF's and low taxes compar
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_etf_funds

Strategy Investment
  Strategy investment refers to an investment strategy, which should be wise chosen according to investing person character and market environment. Investing always has to be strategic and foresee possible future e
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Investment Strategy in Growth Stocks
  Investing in the rapidly growing companies has always attracted the attention of all worlds’ investors, in particular, at the market rise. The reason why investing in growth stocks - so popular is very simp
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Value Investing
Investment strategy - Value Investing   Investing in value stocks is fundamentally different from investing in the growth companies. Stocks of growth company will rise up impressively during bull market when value
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Investing in Unprofitable Companies
Investment Strategy - Unprofitable Companies Investing in companies that are still unprofitable is more difficult than investing in profitable companies, but may also be very successful. If the company will turn around
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_unprofitable_companies

market Timing at Investing
Investing During Change of Economic Cycles - market Timing Investment Strategy  market timing is capturing of investment price movements "waves" trying to sell high and buy cheap. Simple as that.  Still it onl
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Investing in Funds
Investment Funds Strategy   Indeed, investing in mutual funds is not complete investment strategy, but only a part of it, or more precisely, only the choice of investment instrument. For example, if the strategy d
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_funds

Net Debt
  Definition   'Net debt' is used quite often in finance and it is equal to financial liabilities of the company that are reduced by the cash amount (and cash equivalents) that are held by the company. 
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Investment Manager
Investment management or finance management are particularly a lot of attention and responsibility requiring areas. It does not matter whether you manage your money whether corporate funds, in any case, it is important t
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Investment Strategy by Age
  It is very popular to allocate asset classes in investment portfolio according to investor’s age. And it has some reasonable justification: when investor’s age is changing – his risk tolerance a
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Investment Book:
  Investing for Beginners Exposed: Or What Investment Consultants Hide from You   Rokas Lukosius (Author of the book and this website)   No matter whether you are a seasoned inv
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Online Investing
Few decades ago all the investors was acquiring stocks calling to broker by phone or using some other way to contact him. However, computerization of the world has changed investing significantly. Online investing became
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Investments in Ultra ETF
  Ultra ETF by most characteristics is similar to normal ETF but there is one main difference: if Ultra ETF follows the same index as normal ETF does, it makes it twice. For example, if normal ETF follows index tha
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Investment in Ultra Short ETF
  Investment in Ultra Short ETFs combines characteristics of both: Ultra ETF’s and Short ETF’s. The value of Ultra Short ETF changes twice in opposite direction to the value of index which is followed b
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_ultra_short_etf

Investment Adviser
  Investment advisor/adviser does the same jog as investment consultant does. But investment advisor is a term used by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). So usually investment advisor refers to a company
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Speculation
  Speculation is an investment action made under intentions to earn large profits in short term. Usually such actions are very risky and lays somewhere between investing and gambling. It is hard to say where exactl
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Investment Policy
  An investment policy is an investment philosophy, main principles to be used of an investor. Investment policy may be written or not, and is needed for the investor to maintain attitudes during market turmoil. In
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Investment Techniques
  Investment techniques are some combination of investment strategies and investment tactics. Investment techniques usually are middle term oriented procedures that help to reach some predetermined result. It may i
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Investment Decision
  An investment decision is a choice made by investor or investment manager trying to maximize the return and minimize the risk. The every decision maker tries to make the best choice for him, the same time better
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Financial market
  A financial market is a term widely used to describe virtual place/mechanism that allows meeting the sellers and buyers of the investment and other financial products. In current times buyers and sellers do not m
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OTC market
  OTC (Over-The-Counter) market is decentralized market where financial assets are traded. Decentralized market means a contrast to the exchange trading. OTC market doesn’t have one place (no physical, no vir
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Stock market
  A stock market represents all the stocks (shares) that are issued and traded or just held. Stock market (equity market) is a part of a whole financial market but more extensive term than Stock Exchange. Stock Exc
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Global Financial market
  A global financial market is a totality of all worlds’ financial markets. Every decent country has a Security Exchange and larger states have few or several of them. As financial markets includes not o
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Bond market
  A bond market includes all the bonds (debt securities) that are issued and traded or just held. Bond market is a part of a whole financial market.  This market covers all the fixed income securities that are
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Derivative market
  A derivative market is a totality of derivatives (futures, forwards, options, swaps and other) that have been created over the world. Some of the derivatives are standardized and are traded on Exchanges whil
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Commodity market
  A commodity market is one of the main financial market parts. Commodities are basic resources that are extracted from earth or are the result from agriculture activities. Some commodities, like cheese are already
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FOREX market
  FOREX market (foreign exchange market) is a global network of trading in different currencies. It is the most liquid financial market with huge turnovers continuously without breaks. Lot commercial banks, central
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Spot market
  Spot markets are a contrast to the futures markets because in spot market transaction are completed immediately and in cash (or bank transfer). The spot market represents the real current prices on the market of
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Bull market
  A bull market is a market trend when investment market is increasing over longer period and is believed to increase in the future. Bull market is a well known term among investors and is opposite to bear mar
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Bear market
  A bear market is a market trend when investment market is decreasing over longer period and is believed to decrease in the future. Bear market is a well known term in the investment world and is opposite to bull
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Investor
  An investor is an individual or corporate unit that invests in any class of investments on purpose to earn some return from invested capital. There may be more criteria to distinguish very small investments
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Stock Split
  A stock split is a divide of existing company’s shares decreasing its face value. For every owned share an investor gets a several (or one) additional shares depending on split ratio, and the total out
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Book Value of Share
  A book value of share is calculated dividing all company’s book value (less preferred equity) by its common share number. For example, if company’s book value is 1,000,000 USD and issued share nu
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Stock Book Value
  Stock book value is a book value of one share. It is calculated dividing shareholders equity by share number and gives some very approximate investing guidance about the value of the stock. It is popular to look
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Stockholder Wealth Maximization
  Stockholder wealth maximization is a main goal for firm’s managers in corporate finance. Stockholder wealth maximization is above the profit maximization because of long term orientation and better risk man
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Stock market Crash
  A stock market crash is a investing term used to describe fast and sharp decrease of all or almost all stock prices on the exchange. However, there is no exact definition how long and how strong market fall shoul
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Dividend Stocks
  Dividend stocks are called stocks that have high dividend yield and high dividend payout ratio. Normal dividend stocks should have stable 6%-10% dividend yield and possible 60-100% dividend payout ratio. High div
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Ex-Dividend Date
  Ex-dividend date is a first day when investor does no longer receive dividends paid by company’s shares. This is important factor because the period of shares' settlement after transacti
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Stock Buyback
  A stock buyback (share repurchase) is a company’s purchase of its own stock on the market. It is contrary way to pay out capital for shareholders to dividends. Stock buybacks are getting more and more
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Initial Public Offering (IPO)
  An initial public offering (IPO) is a first introduce of company’s shares to the stock market. However, during initial public offering shares are sold not on the stock exchange but on network of clients by
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Greenshoe
  A greenshoe is an option to sell or buy shares during initial public offering IPO. This option is agreed between the company that goes public and the IPO organizer (some corporate finance firm).   The
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Flipping
  Flipping is partly an investment strategy, partly a speculation when investor resells acquired property quickly on purpose to get fast profit.    Flipping is most common in IPO’s when retail inv
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Investment Tactics
  Investment tactics are the rules for investment actions that help to react on market conditions and achieve more efficient results. Investment tactics deal with lower scale questions than investment strategy, whi
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market Capitalization
  market capitalization (market cap) is a company’s value (price) on the stock exchange. market capitalization is calculated by multiplying the outstanding share number by the last share price on the exchange
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Asset Management
  Asset management is a process when assets acquired, monitored and sold on purpose to achieve optimal investment results. There is no strong difference between investment management and asset management. However,
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Stock Exchange
  A stock exchange is an operator/company that takes bids from the sellers and buyers and executes transactions if conditions allow it. Usually stock exchanges offer trading not only for stocks but also for other f
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market Timing
  market timing is investor's actions when investments are switched between asset classes and may be a part of investment strategy. For example, if investor sees that stocks are very high and economical downturn is
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Global Investment
  Global investment is investment that includes investments from different world’s regions. Investment can be local, regional or global. Local investment would focus on one country or state market, when regio
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International Investment
  International investment is investment that includes investments from different countries. If investor acquires investments in several countries, we could call him international investor. If investment portfolio
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Buying on Margin
  Buying on Margin Costs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons Psychology: Is it worth?     Buying on margin gets popularity during every strong bull market. Unfortunately, it be
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Diversification
  A diversification is an investment technique or a part of an investment strategy, which is used to reduce the investment risk of the portfolio, including in it larger number of different securities or other inves
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True Investment
  True investment is a term used by Benjamin Graham to describe an investment that fits all his criteria of investment philosophy (policy). Later this term was used by Warren Buffet, but he followed Benjamin’
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Real Estate Investment Group
  Real estate investment group is mostly similar to the capital investment group. The main difference is that real estate investment group concentrates its investments on real estate property, when capital investme
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Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
  Real estate investment trust (REIT) is a corporate entity that invests exceptionally in to real estate sector. Usually securities of REIT’s are traded on stock exchange and every investor can easily acquire
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/real_estate_investment_trust_reit

Equity Fund
  An equity fund is a mutual fund that is investing in equity (stocks). Equity fund can be actively managed, index fund, listed index fund (ETF) and can invest in some specific sectors or regions, or can invest glo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/equity_fund

Mutual Fund
  A mutual fund is a collective investment vehicle that is consisted of fund units, which are sold for retail investors. Practically, mutual fund is a large investment portfolio, in which can take a part even small
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Pension Funds
  Pension funds are investment funds established on purpose to generate income for retirement. They are very useful in economy when society gets older and number of population decreases, because a working class is
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Derivatives
  Derivatives are securities (financial instruments) that are created by financial intermediaries synthetically, and are based on price or value of some primer assets or indicator. Usually such underlying assets ar
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Securities
  Securities are financial instruments that represent rights to some assets. Securities can be listed or non-listed. Listed securities are traded on securities exchanges, which commonly are called as stock exchange
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Institutional Investment
  Institutional investment is an investment that is made by an organization/institution. Usually, institutional investments are large scale and has important role in financial markets. Most institutional investment
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Institutional Investor
  An institutional investor is an investor that is a corporation/institution. Institutional investors have high impact to investment markets and sometimes decisions of most known institutional investment manag
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Retail Investor
  A retail investor is a small investor, which normally is an individual. Most of the investors in financial markets are retail investors, but retail investor makes an investments in much smaller amounts than
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Large Cap Stocks
  Large cap stocks are stocks of those companies that have the highest market capitalization. All the stocks can be classified to large cap, mid cap and small cap (if ignoring modern classifications that include mo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/large_cap_stocks

Small Cap Stocks
  Small cap stocks are stocks of lower market capitalization. All stocks may be classified to large cap, mid cap and small cap (if ignoring mega, nano and other modern classification caps). There is no united class
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Investment Report
  An investment report is a for investors prepared document on purpose to provide useful and objective information that would help to make an investment decision.     Investment report may have many for
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Investment Bank
  An investment bank is a financial institution that has a license of bank and specializes exclusively on investment services. In the USA investment banking services was separated from other banking activity u
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Business Valuation
  The goal of business valuation is to determine the correct market value of a business. Usually business valuation is performed by professional valuators / assessors who have required qualifications for the job.&n
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Investment Banking Services
Investment banking services are corporate finance services provided by investment banks. Investment banking includes such services like capital rising, securities issuing, IPO’s running, mergers and acquisitions
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_banking_services

Brokerage Company
  A Brokerage Company is a financial institution that has a license to provide intermediary services for a securities trading to the clients. Every retail client cannot by securities on stock exchange by himself be
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/brokerage_company

Credit Union
  A credit union is a financial intermediary institution controlled by its members, who brings deposits to the union and become a creditors of the institution. The principal services of the credit union are th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/credit_union

Financial Intermediary
  A financial intermediary is a financial institution that works in a financial market connecting money owners (savers) and credit seekers (borrowers). Of course, financial intermediaries are active not only i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/financial_intermediary

Private Banking
  Private banking is a service provided for the richest clients of the commercial bank. Such clients have designated personal banker from the institution and they can call to that personal banker for any financial
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/private_banking

Physical Asset market
  A physical asset market is a market in which real products are traded. Physical asset market can also be called real asset market. Such real/tangible products traded in physical asset markets are gold, grain, mea
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/physical_asset_market

Corporation
  A corporation is a legal business form that is dominating over capital world. Most of the biggest businesses in the world are working under corporation form. Capital raising, transferring of shares, mergers &
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Publicly Owned Corporation
  A publicly owned corporation is a company, which has its shares listed on the stock exchange. A publicly owned companies normally are medium or large scale corporations owned by a large number of investors (both
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/publicly_owned_corporation

Financial Asset markets
  Financial asset markets also called just financial markets. These are the markets, in which securities are traded.
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Money market
  A money market is the market, in which money market investments are traded. Such money market investments can be deposits certificates, bills or other short term high grade fixed income securities.   
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/money_market

Capital markets
  Capital markets are the markets, in which stocks and medium to long term bonds are traded. Could be said that capital markets include stock markets and bond markets and are a part of financial markets.   C
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/capital_markets

Mortgage markets
  Mortgage markets are markets, in which credits, that include pledged real estate property, are created and traded. Usually in mortgage markets main players are financial institutions: retail banks sell such mortg
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/mortgage_markets

Primary markets
  Primary markets are the markets, in which new capital investments are raised. The perfect example of primary market is an IPO, but even if it is not the first issue of securities for the company, it still counts
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/primary_markets

Secondary markets
  Secondary markets are markets, in which securities are traded, but not acquired directly from the issuers. This is why secondary markets differ from primary markets, where securities are bought directly from issu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/secondary_markets

Private markets
  Private markets are opposite to public markets. Securities transactions in private markets are completed without help of stock exchange, but between two parties directly. If some company wants to sale its share i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/private_markets

Risk-Free Interest Rate
  A risk-free interest rate  is rate of interests that would be paid by fixed income securities that contains no risk at all.    For a very long time short-term US Treasury securities was used to d
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/riskfree_interest_rate

Junk Bonds
  Junk bonds are bonds that have a speculative-grade credit rating, which is BB or lower.    Junk bonds are riskier but they have higher yields. The spread between junk bond yield and safe bond yield (c
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/junk_bonds

Enterprise Value
  Enterprise value (EV) is a financial measure that is used to reflect the magnitude of the business. If market capitalization shows only the value of shareholders equity, enterprise value includes both: equity val
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/enterprise_value

Penny Stocks
  Penny stocks used to be described as stocks which price on stock exchange are lower than 1$ or 5$ (there is no officially approved norm). However, it is not very fair to judge a company for its share price on exc
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/penny_stocks

Investment Consultant
  An investment consultant is a job position in financial companies. Main functions of investment consultant: Help private investors to make a proper investment strategy according to investors risk tolerance. A
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_consultant

Cheap Stocks
  Cheap stocks are such stocks that are traded at low valuation multiples. For example, if you see a telecom or utility company of which P/E is equal to 6 and EV/EBITDA is equal to 3, you may say it is a cheap stoc
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cheap_stocks

Growth Stocks
  Growth stocks are stocks of companies which earnings per share grow faster than average on the market. Such is theory, but if look in practical side, earnings grow faster most of the times only when economical cy
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/growth_stocks

Value Stocks
  Value stocks are opposite to growth stocks and attract investors not by growth perspectives but by stable cash and dividend flow. market ratios (P/E, P/B and other) of value stocks are low and together with high
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/value_stocks

Value Penny Stocks
  Value penny stocks are stocks that have characteristics of both: value stock and penny stock. Investment in value penny stocks isn’t very popular, because stock investors who seek for safety invest in norma
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/value_penny_stocks

Investment market
  An investment market is a part of a financial market and represents all investments that were issued by corporations, governments or other entities. All the trades made by retail and institutional investors can b
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_market

Operating Leverage
  An operating leverage is a company’s EBIT (earnings before taxes and financial operations) sensitivity to changes of sales. As the sensitivity is measured to operating income (close to EBIT), the
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/operating_leverage

Diversifiable Risk
  A diversifiable risk is the risk that can be reduced by increasing number of investments in the investment portfolio. For example, company’s risk can easy diversifiable by choosing more companies. Even coun
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/diversifiable_risk

market Risk
  A market risk is a systematical risk that cannot be diversified. There are some risk factors that can make effect on the whole market: economical cycles, nature disasters, wars; and such are not diversifiable ris
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/market_risk

Investment Strategies
  Investment (investing) strategy – often discussed by both amateur and professional investors, but in fact very rarely encountered. Amateurs usually imagine that they has an investment strategy only after th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_strategies

Financial Leverage
  A financial leverage is a use of borrowed money to achieve more efficient capital structure. A borrowed capital is cheaper than equity capital most of the times. So usage of loaned money makes weighted average ca
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/financial_leverage

Investment Management Fees
  Investment management fees (fees that are paid straight to investment manager) basically are one of these types:   Performance based fee. Performance based fee is calculated according to increase of inve
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_fees

Total Expense Ratio
  ‘Total expense ratio shows all expenses of investment fund. It is a good measure that shows you how much of different fees you are really paying when investing in some fund. Total expense ratio is a percent
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/total_expense_ratio

INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT – HOW TO MANAGE YOURS INVESTMENTS PROPERLY
  Investment management is a complete science and if you are expecting to become a professional investment manager in few hours you should get disappointed. However, there are several most important guidelines at i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_how_to_manage_yours_investments_properly

Investment Performance Measurement
  Many investors are happy about investment managers until the stock market is growing, but when the decline starts investment managers gets only the worst words about their job. However, this is wrong attitud
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_performance_measurement

Treynor Ratio
  Treynor ratio is another popular ratio that is used to measure the performance of investment portfolio. This ratio compares the excess return (above risk free return) of a portfolio to beta of that portfolio. Whi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/treynor_ratio

Jensen’s Alpha
  Jensen’s alpha is used to measure the performance of an investment portfolio. The higher ratio means better performance of portfolio manager. Basically, this Jensen’s ratio shows the above market port
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/jensens_alpha

Investment Risk Management
  There are several main methods of investment risk management:    Diversification. Diversification is the easiest and most of the times the cheapest way to reduce risk level of the investment portfol
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_risk_management

Quantitative Investment Management
  Quantitative investment management says, “Don’t worry about investment management, and let to do the job for the computer”.  It is a completely different approach compared to ‘value d
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/quantitative_investment_management

Sharpe Ratio
  Sharpe ratio measures the above risk free performance of investment portfolio in relation to its risk. This ratio was developed by William F. Sharpe which introduced the ratio in 1966. Now Sharpe ratio is the mos
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/sharpe_ratio

Foreign Direct Investment
  Foreign direct investment (FDI) traditionally was understood as investment that is made by foreign country in direct assets, for example factory, including land, building and machinery. When financial markets evo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/foreign_direct_investment

Return on Investment
  Return on investment (ROI) is a percentage that shows profitability of an investment or investment portfolio. Return on investment calculation:   CALCULATION:   Return on investment = net in
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/return_on_investment

Investment Finance
  Investment finance is finance that is related to investment. Investment market is a part of financial market, so we can say that investment is a part of finance.    Investment finance specializes on f
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_finance

Margin Trading
  Margin trading is trading in securities when part of the investment portfolio is financed by borrowed money (the other part by your own capital). For example, you have investment portfolio of value $20k, end you
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/margin_trading

Hyperinflation
  Hyperinflation is an economical situation when inflation is extremely high. Regularly it is a result of inflation spiral and some disasters (as war), and is very dangerous for the economy. Just try imagine your b
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/hyperinflation

Deflation
  Deflation is a process opposite to inflation and occurs when inflation is negative. Deflation means that prices of goods and services are decreasing. Such situation when prices are decreasing is not very common i
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Stagflation
  Stagflation is an economical situation, when high inflation and stagnation of the economy come together. It is very difficult situation, because it not allows using monetary politics efficiently to revitalize the
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stagflation

P/E Ratio
  P/E ratio is the most popular valuation multiple that is used for stock analysis. This ratio shows the price of the stock compared to its earnings. The multiple is so popular because of its simplicity and im
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/p_e_ratio

PEG Ratio
Price-to-Earnings to Growth Ratio   PEG ratio is quiet popular among retail investors, however professionals do not use it often because of this ratio subjectivity. PEG ratio shows how expensive is stock compared
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/peg_ratio

P/B Ratio
P/B (P/Bv or price-to-book) ratio shows how expensive stock is compared to its books value. Company’s book value (also called equity, capital, shareholders funds etc.) is equal to company’s total assets les
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/p_b_ratio

P/NAV Ratio
Price to Net Asset Value    P/NAV ratio shows how expensive share is compared to its NAV (net asset value). This ratio is very similar to P/B ratio but in this case market values (not book values) are used. M
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/p_nav_ratio

EV/S Ratio
Enterprise Value to Sales Ratio   EV/S ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its sales. This multiple is important when company is unprofitable or profits margins are very low and turnaround is expected in
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ev_s_ratio

P/S Ratio
Price to Sales Ratio   P/S ratio shows the price of the stock compared to its sales. This ratio historically was quiet popular, but now EV/S ratio, which is more correct methodically, is used.   
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/p_s_ratio

EV/EBITDA Ratio
EBITDA Multiple   EV/EBITDA ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization). EV to EBITDA multiple is mostly used by professionals because
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ev_ebitda_ratio

Cost of Equity
  Cost of equity is the rate of return that is required by equity owners from their investment. Of course, requirements of the shareholders have to be real and meet market conditions as well. Basically cost of equi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_equity

Stock Valuation
  Stock valuation is very important part of investing in stocks, and this part is the most time consuming and knowledge requiring. Stock valuation is a necessary and main step at stock picking process. The only way
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stock_valuation

Relative Valuation
Comparative analysis    Relative valuation is stock valuation method that gained its popularity because of simplicity and practical importance. The key principle of relative valuation is about valuation multi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/relative_valuation

DCF Valuation
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis   DCF valuation might be applied to any asset that generates positive free cash flow or is expected to generate that cash flow in the future. DCF valuation might be directly applied t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/dcf_valuation

Replacement Cost Valuation
  Replacement cost valuation method is not very popular at stock valuation. Most of the investors are picking stocks with help of relative valuation or DCF valuation. Only when those two methods aren’t possib
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/replacement_cost_valuation

ADR (American Depository Receipt)
  ADR (American Depository Receipt) is a form of international stock trading when a certificate (security) that might be traded in some US stock exchange in US dollars and represents shares of foreign company. The
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/adr_american_depository_receipt

Correlation
  Correlation is a statistical measure that shows the relationship between two objects. Correlation may range between +1 and -1. If correlation between the objects is 0 that means they are not dependable on each ot
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/correlation

GDR (Global Depository Receipt)
  GDR (Global Depository Receipt) is a security’s certificate that is traded on some European stock exchange and represents shares of foreign company. GDR normally is denominated in one of the main currencies
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/gdr_global_depository_receipt

Discounted Cash Flow
  Discounted cash flow (DCF) is forecasted net cash flow of the company or other asset that is recalculated (discounted) to its current value. Discounted cash flow is important for investment assessing and mostly i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/discounted_cash_flow

WACC
  WACC (Weighted Average Capital Cost) shows cost of capital when capital is consisted of both equity and debt capital. So WACC simply calculates the weighted average between equity cost and debt cost.  
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/wacc

CAPM
  CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) is method widely used for equity cost calculation. Equity cost should show the return that investor should expect/seek from an investment that contains specific level of risk.&n
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/capm

Hedge Funds
  Hedge funds are investment funds that use financial leverage and derivatives to achieve better investment results. The name of hedge fund came from hedging, which originally is a defensive investment strategy, bu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/hedge_funds

Free Float
  Free float is a proportion of company’s shares that are really traded in the market. Normally, free float is lower than the total outstanding number of shares, because most of the largest shareholders do no
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/free_float

market Making
  market making is a service provided by brokerage company to some listed company to increase liquidity in stock trading on stock exchange. Usually brokerage company gets paid for this service and has to maintain s
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/market_making

Floating Exchange Rate
  Floating exchange rate is a regime of a currency which sets currency ratio naturally according to demand and supply in the market. Most of the biggest currencies (EUR, USD, GBP, JPY and others) are floating curre
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/floating_exchange_rate

Conflict of Interest
  A conflict of interest is very sensitive problem at financial intermediaries when interests of different groups (owners, investors, employees or other) cross each other. All employees in investment market should
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/conflict_of_interest

Political Risk
  A political risk is related to political decisions and political environment development, and is one of the main risks when investing in emerging markets. Developed markets also contain political risk, but there
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/political_risk

EBITDA Coverage Ratio
  EBITDA coverage ratio (also called EBITDA to Interest Coverage Ratio) shows company’s capability to deal with its financial leverage. If this ratio is too low, that may show company is in trouble and may ha
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ebitda_coverage_ratio

EBITDA Margin
  EBITDA margin is a profitability margin that shows how much of EBITDA earns company’s revenue relatively. The EBITDA margin is the best for profitability comparison of the companies if you want to measure e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ebitda_margin

Profit Margin
  Profit margin normally refers to net profit margin, which is net profit divided by sales. But one should remember that profit might be of different kinds (net profit, pretax profit, EBIT, EBITDA and gross profit)
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/profit_margin

ROE
  ROE (Return on Equity) shows profitability of company’s book value. Company’s book value (equity) is equal to company’s assets less liabilities, and ROE is usually higher if company ha
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/roe

ROA
  ROA (Return on Assets) shows what profits are earned by company’s assets. Of course, assets alone usually do not earn the profit, because most of the times profit is the result of know-how and hard work of
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/roa

Margin Call
  Buying on Margin Costs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons Psychology: Is it worth?     Margin call is a fabulous term which carries some mysticism. However, there is nothing
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The Pros and Cons of Buying on Margin
  Buying on Margin Costs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons of Buying on Margin Psychology of Buying on Margin: Is it worth?     The opportunity provided by buying on margin i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/the_pros_and_cons_of_buying_on_margin

Psychology of Buying on Margin: Is it worth?
  Buying on Margin Costs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons of Buying on Margin Psychology of Buying on Margin: Is it worth?     For the conclusion I would like to say that bu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/psychology_of_buying_on_margin_is_it_worth

Costs of Buying Stocks on Margin
  Buying on Margin Costs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons Psychology: Is it worth?     We won’t talk about the possible losses in here. The goal of this paragraph is t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/costs_of_buying_stocks_on_margin

Financial Investment
  Financial investment is any financial asset that should provide a return for investor. Financial asset is an asset that doesn’t have tangible form and has some financial obligations to its owner. All securi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/financial_investment

Trading Stocks
  Trading stocks is a process when stocks are bought and sold on the stock market. How differs trading stocks and investing in stocks? Well, it is the same, just is common to think that investing is a long term pro
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/trading_stocks

Trading Platform
  Trading platform is an electronic tool provided by brokerage company or other financial intermediary that allows for investor to buy and sell stocks or other securities using his computer. In other words trading
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/trading_platform

M&A
  M&A (mergers & acquisitions) is a field of corporate finance in which corporations are acquiring other companies or are merging in between. Theoretically it doesn’t sound very impressive, but in rea
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ma

Merger
  A merger is a deal when two (theoretically possible more) companies are merging in between to achieve synergy. Mergers are part of M&A market and differ from acquisition by payment method for the stake. In me
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/merger

Acquisition
  An acquisition is a takeover of one corporation by another when shares are bought and control of management is overtaken. Acquisition is an M&A deal and as targets for acquisition usually become some competin
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/acquisition

Poison Pill
  A poison pill is one of the strategies used to avoid hostile takeover. Poison pills are some rules in company’s charters that give some extra rights for corporation. Poison pills may be rights to acquire mo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/poison_pill

Organic Growth
  An organic growth is a growth of the company when inner resources are used to get larger market share. Also organic growth may be achieved together with growth of the whole market segment or entering new markets
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/organic_growth

Synergy
  Synergy is a popular term among management of the companies as well as among M&A participants. In finance synergy means a savings in some costs when several units are merged. The theory says it should be like
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/synergy

Underwriter
  An underwriter is a company (normally an investment bank) that organizes the selling of new security issues for the corporations. It is a financial intermediary that buys new issues of securities (shares or bonds
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/underwriter

Leveraged Buyout
  A leveraged buyout (LBO) is a takeover of a company when debt capital is the main financing source for the acquisition and the acquired assets are used as collateral to receive the needed debt. The LBO may be exe
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/leveraged_buyout

Employee Stock Options
  Employee stock options are options that are given to employees as part of motivation package and gives an opportunity for employees to acquire shares of the company in the future at a lower price. In their meanin
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/employee_stock_options

Go Public
  Go public means to get company’s shares listed on the stock exchange; the process also called floatation. To go public, company has to hire some investment banking firm that would help to execute an IPO (in
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/go_public

Floatation
  Floatation means going public through an IPO. If companies go public they have to get listed their shares on some stock exchange. Each company’s may choose any stock exchange, but normally smaller companies
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/floatation

market Value
  The meaning of market value depends on the context for which the term is applied. Generally, market value is a price at which the buyer would agree to buy and seller would agree to sell the object without any ext
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/market_value

Bearish
  Bearish is attitude of an investor if investor expects market to go down in the near future. Most often term bearish is applied for stock investments when is believed that stocks are going to decrease in value. T
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/bearish

Bullish
  Bullish is an investor's attitude when he believes that the investment market is going to rise in the near future. Most of the times this term is applied for investments in stocks, when is believed that stock mar
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/bullish

Par Value
  Par value also is called face value or nominal value, and is a nominal amount of money that shows how much of money is related to the security nominally. Par value is used most commonly for two types of securitie
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/par_value

Investment Products
  Investment products basically are investments that are packed and adopted for every investor. The best example of investment product could be mutual funds or any other investment funds that are well diversified a
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_products

Pig (investor)
  A pig is an animal known by every farmer. However, at investing pigs are also popular yet the meaning is different.   In investment world are two kinds of animals mentioned the most: bulls and bears. Bulli
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Risk Tolerance
  Risk tolerance is a characteristic that describes the investor and his ability to withstand losses from investments. The higher risk tolerance of investor the more losses he/she may handle.    Investm
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/risk_tolerance

Risk Averse
  Risk averse is a characteristic of an investor who is avoiding risk. The more investor is avoiding the risk the more is he risk averse. Almost all the investors (as people are too) are more or less risk averse an
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/risk_averse

Growth Funds
  Growth funds are investment (mutual) funds that concentrate on investing in stocks of fast growing companies. Growth funds can be passively managed or actively-managed funds but all growth funds are riskier than
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/growth_funds

Balanced Fund
  A balanced fund is a mutual (investment) fund that invests in different asset classes: stocks, bonds and money market investments according to the fund’s investment strategy.    It may
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/balanced_fund

Portfolio Manager
  A portfolio manager is an investment professional that takes over the management of an investment portfolio. There are many types of managed investment portfolios: mutual funds, pension funds, insurance funds, po
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/portfolio_manager

Outstanding Share Number
  Outstanding share number is an important characteristic for the stock value of every stock company. This number represents all the issued shares in the company except the shares that are held by the company itsel
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/outstanding_share_number

High Return Investments
  High-return investments (or high-yield investments) are investments that can provide the higher return than average investments, and of course such investments are riskier. The reality is that people have differe
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Stock Trader
  A stock trader is a speculator that is trying to make profits from quick changes in value of stocks or other securities that he trades. Stock trader have few differences from normal investor and the main differen
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stock_trader

Investment Bubble
  Investment bubble is a jump in price of particular investment when price starts increasing faster and faster as long as the price reaches its peak and falls down to a similar to previous level, if there are no ot
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_bubble

Passive Income
  Passive income is an earnings that person receives consistently for a long term from some stable sources. One and most probable source of passive income may be income from investment.    For example,
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Active Investment
  Active investment (management) is opposite to passive investment and means that investments are managed by some investment professional that picks the securities according to investment market tendencies and
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/active_investment

Investment Services
  Investment services is a spectrum of financial services provided by investment banks, brokerage houses, investment management companies and other financial intermediaries that work in investment finance segment.
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_services

Passive Investment
  Passive investment (management) is an investment style when investors skips the steps of securities picking and market timing and invests mainly in index funds that have the lowest expenses.    P
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/passive_investment

Best Investments
  Best investments are always wanted, but the reality is that there are no best investments for everyone. And if such investment would exist then those investments would become an investment bubble and would not st
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/best_investments

Investment Information
  Investment information is crucial to make good investment decisions. It is information that may help to make good investment solution and would help to reach for better investment results.    The deta
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_information

Short-Term Investments
  Short term investments are investments that are suited for short term investing. There can be different understanding of short term investing but it is normal that investments for period till one year can be cons
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Safe Investments
  Safe investments are investments that contain low risk and considered to be safe. Safe investments do not necessary have to be 100% safe because there is no 100% safe investments in this world as this world isn&r
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/safe_investments

Personal Investing
  Personal investing is investing when investments are made by an individual but not a corporation which is corporate investment.   Personal investing is a part of personal finance that is responsible for pe
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/personal_investing

CIS countries
  CIS countries (Commonwealth of Independent States) is by Russia led group of countries that earlier belonged to the Soviet Union. However, not all the countries of the past Soviet Union’s belong to CIS coun
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cis_countries

Valuation Methods
  There are three main valuation methods used for business valuation or stock valuation:  Relative valuation is very easy to use and is the fastest method. That is why this method is so popular among fina
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/valuation_methods

Valuation Consultants
  Valuation consultants are professionals that know everything about the value of an asset or business. The real market value consists of many parts and all of them may have critical importance to the value. Only e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/valuation_consultants

Asset Valuation
  The specifics of asset valuation depend on particular asset class. However, the main valuation methods are the same for all assets. The mostly used methods are relative valuation and DCF valuation. Relative valua
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Company Valuation
  Company valuation is the same as business valuation. The only difference between company valuation and business valuation may occur if value of company’s stocks has to be determined instead of the whole bus
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Stock market Trading
  Stock market trading is similar to stock market investing; however, it is not exactly the same. At first, stock trading refers to a stock trader who trades stocks very often and do not invests for a long term. Lo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stock_market_trading

Stock Price
  A stock price is the last price of a share (stock) that was traded in a stock exchange for a particular stock. If stock exchange is closed at the moment, then the last stock price will be closing price for that s
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Stock market Investing
  Stock market investing is investing in equity securities – stocks. Stock market investing differs from stock market trading because has longer term approach.    Stock markets cover stocks that a
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Buying Stocks
  Buying stocks is an easy thing. Of course, it is harder to pick good stocks. Every person, that has some capital, can open a trading platform and buy stocks, but the goal is not only to buy the stocks but to make
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/buying_stocks

Stock Symbol
  Stock symbol is symbol that is created for stocks by stock exchange to be easier recognizable for participants of the financial market. Stock symbol mostly is called as stock ticker.
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Trading Volume
  Trading volume is an amount of securities that was traded in the market over some period. Usually volume is measured for a trading session (day), week or month but other periods also may be used. Higher number of
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/trading_volume

Discount Broker
  A discount broker is a brokerage company that acts as an intermediary for securities trading and offers is used to offer its services for a lower commission fees. At the same time discount brokers provide less co
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/discount_broker

Liquidity
  (1) market liquidity is a characteristic of a security or other traded investment that shows how easy it is convertible in to cash at a market value. Usually when investor decides to sell some investment and
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Broker
  A broker is an intermediary that helps for retail or other investors buy their investments. Broker can be as a person (job title) or a brokerage company that acts as a financial intermediary between the seller an
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/broker

Brokerage Account
  Brokerage account is an account provided to investor by a brokerage company or an investment bank. Brokerage account has changed during computerization and now almost all brokerage accounts have electronic interf
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Ask Price
  Ask price is the lowest price at which seller of a security is willing to sell indicated amount of securities. In stock exchange many investors leave their sell orders through their brokers and every sell order t
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Bid-Ask Spread
  Bid-ask spread is the difference between the bid price and the ask price, or in other words it is a difference between the best offered price of a seller and the best given price by a buyer for a particular secur
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/bidask_spread

Investment Management Salaries
  The media always pay a lot of attention to investment management salaries and maybe those salaries are worth it. Investment management business as investment management consulting or investment fund management re
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_salaries

Real Estate Investment Management
  Real estate investment management is a management of real estate portfolio. Real estate investments are different from standard investments (securities) and management of real estate investments differs from inve
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Investment Management Consultations
  Investment management consulting is part of investment management business that helps for investors to manage their investments more effectively. Investment management is one of the most crucial step in personal
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Investment Management Business
  Investment management business is a large part of a financial industry and is very important for investment banks and other investment companies because investment management business has quite good profitability
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_business

Investment Management Process
  Investment management process has several functions: Macroeconomics analysis and estimates Research of industry sectors Security picking Asset allocation market timing Financial news covering Securitie
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_process

Smart Investors
  Smart investors can be called investors that do smart decisions at investing process. Of course it is hard to tell what is really smart and what is not. The true is that investing is not about being smart because
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/smart_investors

Undervalued Stocks
  Undervalued stocks are called those stocks that are believed to have higher target price than their stock price on the exchange. The higher is the difference the more stock is undervalued. If stock price in the m
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/undervalued_stocks

Private Investors
  Private investors are individuals that are investing in to some assets for investment purpose. (1) There are two main types of investors: private investors and institutional investors (business investor). Also th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/private_investors

Target Price
  Target price is a calculated price that should represent the market value of the stock and also can be called target value. Target price normally is calculated by analysts of investment banks of brokerage compani
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Overvalued Stocks
  Overvalued stocks are those stocks that cost in stock market more than their target price is. Target price of the stock is calculated market value of a stock using stock valuation methods. The most popular method
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Target Value
  Target value is a calculated market value of the stock that should show the expected price of the stock. If target value is higher that stock price on the stock exchange, that should mean the analyst that made th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/target_value

Income Statement
  Income statement (also called statement of operations, profit and loss statement, P&L or other) is one of three main financial statements reported by the companies periodically. Income statement exposes compa
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/income_statement

Balance Sheet
  Balance sheet is one of the three main financial statements (others are income statement and cash flow statement). Balance sheet also might be called a statement of financial position because this statement expla
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Earnings
  Earnings are calculated gains of the company and should represent the profit of that business. There are several types of earnings:   Retained earnings are equal to net profit less dividends. Net earnin
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Income
  The term income may have several meanings. In corporate finance it basically means profit or earnings that are equal to revenue less expenses. But in some cases income may also indicate company’s revenue bu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/income

Loss
  Loss (net loss) is a financial situation of the company when its revenue is lower than expenses. It is natural that every company tries to receive a profit instead of a loss, but not every succeeds that. Some com
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/loss

Operating Margin
  Operating margin is a profitability percentage that shows what company’s profit margin is before it pays interests and taxes. Operating margin simply ignores capital structure (because ignores financial act
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/operating_margin

Financial Analysis
  Financial analysis is an important part of investing, especially if investor wants better results from his investments. Of course it is possible to ignore financial analysis and make investment decisions based on
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/financial_analysis

Profitability Analysis
  The main purpose of profitability analysis is to determine the profit margin and compare it to the appropriate financial data. Profitability should not be confused with return because profitability is based on so
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Return
  Return analysis is different from profitability analysis because usually return is measured as a profitability of the assets, investments, capital or other similar asset group but not as a profitability of the re
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/return

Solvency
  Solvency analysis takes an important part in financial analysis and mostly is used by creditors. Creditors of the business (bondholders, banks that provide loans) don’t care much if company’s profit w
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/solvency

Financial Planning
  Financial planning is a type of financial analysis of which goal is to predict financial situation of the object in the future. There are two main trends where financial planning can be applied: in corporate fina
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Turnover Ratio
  (1) Turnover ratio of mutual fund shows how quickly assets of the fund are changing. Actively managed investment funds have higher turnover ratio than passively managed funds, and normally turnover ratio is measu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/turnover_ratio

Cash Debt Coverage Ratio
  ‘Cash debt coverage ratio’ (also known as ‘current cash debt coverage ratio’) measures company’s ability to repay its debts. Basically, it compares cash flow that is received from op
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cash_debt_coverage_ratio

Cash Flow Coverage Ratio
  Cash flow coverage ratio measures company’s ability to repay its debt. This ratio compares operating cash flow of the company to its debts.  If ratio is low (lower than 0.2), it may indicate potential
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cash_flow_coverage_ratio

Financial Forecasting
  Financial forecasting is a part of financial planning and also a part of a DCF valuation. But usually financial planning covers only a period of year or two while financial forecasting regularly covers about five
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/financial_forecasting

Financial Planning Process
  Financial planning process requires the most professionalism and attention to the every detail. While financial planning estimates main financial indicators or financial statements, the process of it includes als
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Strategic Financial Planning
  Strategic financial planning is a bit different from standard financial planning because standard financial planning focuses on a budget which is detailed estimation of financial statements when strategic financi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/strategic_financial_planning

Working Capital Management
  Why Working Capital Is Important? Working capital is one of the main parts of company’s finances and every manager, even of the small company, manages working capital despite the fact he knows about that o
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/working_capital_management

Investments in Blue Chip Stocks
  Stock investments require high degree of financial knowledge and the understanding of market realities, but only if you are seeking for the most efficient result. Yet, the reality is that there are millions of pe
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Investments in Small Cap Stocks
  Investments in Small Cap Stocks Investments in small cap stocks could be compared to penny stock investments but the term ‘penny stocks’ is not specific enough. The thing is that the determination of
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Stocks and Commodities
  You may ask how stocks and commodities related are. And the answer is simple: everything is related and especially in financial markets. Normally, if some of the main asset class (as stocks) looses or gains
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stocks_and_commodities

Earnings Estimate
  Earnings estimate is a forecast for income of the closest future period. Earnings estimate usually is calculated by the employees of analyzed company or analysts of other financial companies. Normally, earnings e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/earnings_estimate

Investment Philosophy
  Investment philosophy must include the main rules of the investment management process. It is a type of approach in which investor is tend to believe. Many investors believe in different things and have different
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_philosophy

Investment Formula
  If you are looking for some perfect investment formula, you should get disappointed because there is no secret investment formula that would be profitable for every investor. If there would be such perfect formul
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_formula

Cost of Debt
  Cost of debt shows what the capital cost of the company for its debt capital is. Basically company’s capital consists of two parts: debt capital and equity capital. (A mixed capital like mezzanine financing
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_debt

Cost of Debt Formula
  Cost of debt formula    Theoretical cost of debt formula:   Before tax cost of debt = Risk free rate + Credit risk premium  After tax cost of debt = (Risk free rate + Credit risk premiu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_debt_formula

Opex
  Opex (operating expense) are expenses of the business and are related to the operational activity of the company.  Basically, every company has few types of expenses: COGS (cost of sales) include costs t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/opex

Cost of Debt Calculation
  The cost of debt is easy to calculate if they are required data. Actually, there are few methods to get the cost of debt, but some of those are more accurate some less. If you want that your result would be more
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_debt_calculation

Price to Free Cash Flow
  Price to free cash flow (P/FCF) or EV/FCF ratio are ratios that compare company's price to its free cash flow. The main difference between those two ratios is that EV/FCF also includes the eff
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/price_to_free_cash_flow

Price to Cash Flow Ratio
  Price to cash flow ratio (P/CF) and EV/CF ratio are similar but there are some differences. The main difference is that EV/CF also includes the effect of company’s financial debt which says a different
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/price_to_cash_flow_ratio

Free Cash Flow Yield
  Free cash flow yield (FCF yield) show how much of cash that may be distributed to shareholders the business earns compared to its price on the stock exchange (including both: equity value and debt value or just e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/free_cash_flow_yield

Minority Interest
  Minority interest (non-controlling interest) is a part of net income or of an equity that does not belong to the shareholders of the main group. Basically there are two types of the minority interest:  
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Cash Investments
  Cash investments are the safest investments over short-term period. Such investments include saving accounts, certificates of deposit, money market instruments (treasury bills, money market funds). The main crite
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cash_investments

Asset Performance
  Asset performance is a return of an asset over some period. Usually performance is measured on annual basis. But basically performance of any asset depends on its riskiness and the period (most of the stocks and
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/asset_performance

Economic Cycle
  What is economical cycle? An economic cycle means the repeated changes of the economical trends. While during very long economical period economy always has up-trend because of technological evolution and increa
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/economic_cycle

Beta
  What is beta? Beta is a ratio that measures volatility of an investment in relation to the whole market. In other words, it shows how the price of stock was changing compared to the whole market. Theoretically,
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/beta

Volatility
  What is volatility? Volatility definition can be short: volatility is the size of the amplitude in investment’s value changes over time. In simple words, it describes the riskiness of the security because
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Real Estate Flipping
  Real estate flipping always gets popular when economical cycle is increasing. It usually coincides with the period of real estate prices boom. It looks very simple when real estate prices are raising and some peo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/real_estate_flipping

Inside Information
  Inside information is information of the company that was not publicly disclosed. Such information is daily routine for company’s managers, finance department employees or product department employees as th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/inside_information

Insider Trading
  Insider trading is an illegal activity in trading stocks when a stock trader is using information that was not officially disclosed. Such information is called inside information. Such trading is called ‘in
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/insider_trading

Annual Report
  Annual report is a report on company’s activity issued each year. Not every company issues an annual report and mostly such reports are issued by public companies or those that are preparing going public.&n
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/annual_report

Return on Invested Capital
  Return on invested capital (ROIC) or also called return on capital is a financial ratio employed to measure nominal company’s return that is earned by capital invested in operating asset. Basically return o
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/return_on_invested_capital

CFROI
  CFROI or cash flow return on investment is a rate of return that measures the performance of corporation based on its cash flow generation ability. CFROI is not very popular but is still used by some companies an
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cfroi

Technical Analysis of Stocks
  Technical analysis of stocks is widely known type of stock analysis. Technical analysis is completely opposite to fundamental analysis. While fundamental analysis relies on company’s ability to generate cas
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/technical_analysis_of_stocks

Receivables Turnover
  Receivables turnover ratio (also called as accounts receivable turnover) is a financial ratio that measures how efficiently company collects its receivables. If receivables turnover is very low, it means company
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/receivables_turnover

Quick Ratio
  Quick ratio (also called ‘acid test ratio’) is a financial ratio that measures company’s financial liquidity. This ratio compares company’s most liquid assets and short-term liabilities. I
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/quick_ratio

Current Ratio
  Current ratio is a financial ratio that measures company’s financial liquidity in short term. In simple words, this ratio compares company’s short-term assets to its short term liabilities. If short-t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/current_ratio

Return on Capital Employed
  Return on capital employed ratio (ROCE) measures company’s return compared to its employed capital. Return in this case is some kind of profit (mostly EBIT or NOPAT) and the capital employed means equity ca
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/return_on_capital_employed

Capital Adequacy Ratio
  Capital adequacy ratio is the main financial ratio for banks to measure whether the bank has enough of capital on which depends the riskiness of the bank. Banks are borrowing money from other depositors and it is
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/capital_adequacy_ratio

Net Interest Margin
Net interest margin shows the profitability of the lending business for a bank or other financial institution. Lending business is the core business for most of the banks, and the profitability of this operational segmen
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/net_interest_margin

Cost/Income Ratio
  Cost/income ratio is very popular financial ratio in bank analysis. This ratio measures the relation of bank’s operating costs to operating income. Basically, lower ratio is better because means higher prof
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_income_ratio

Non-Performing Loan Ratio
  Non-performing loan ratio measures the quality of the loan portfolio of the financial institution. This financial ratio compares non-performing loans to the total loan portfolio (loans are assets for the bank), a
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/nonperforming_loan_ratio

Loan to Deposit Ratio
Loan to deposit ratio is financial ratio used for banks or other financial institutions. This ratio compares bank’s loan portfolio to deposit portfolio and measures financial liquidity of the institution.  &n
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/loan_to_deposit_ratio

Reserve Ratio
  Reserve ratio (reserve requirement or cash reserve ratio) is a ratio that is used by central bank of an area to regulate the financial market. This financial ratio compares the cash of the bank to the deposits th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/reserve_ratio

Liquidity Ratio
  Liquidity ratio is a ratio that measures company’s liquidity. At first, it is needed to mention that liquidity may have two meanings: financial liquidity of a company or market liquidity of some asset. Liqu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/liquidity_ratio

Equity to Asset Ratio
  Equity to asset ratio measures company’s riskiness by comparing its equity to its assets. If this ratio is very low (lower than 0.3), it might mean that company may be at risk if conditions of the market wo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/equity_to_asset_ratio

Non-Operating Assets
  Non-operating assets are assets of the company that aren’t used in the main activity of the company. Such assets can be either financial or non-financial. This asset type is very important during the valuat
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/nonoperating_assets

Book Value
  There are two main types of values that are used in finance: Book value  market value   Book value is a value that is recorded in the balance sheet of a company. Every asset of the company must
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/book_value

CAGR Formula
  CAGR formula is used to calculate 'compound annual growth rate':   CAGR = (Value at the end / Value at the beginning) ^ (1 / Years) - 1 * Can be multiplied by 100%. Where: Value at t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cagr_formula

Negotiable
  (1) Negotiable means the description of the price when it is or can be flexible depending on other conditions. All sold goods or services may have negotiable or fixed prices, and it depends on the sales strategy
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Leverage
Leverage definition In finance leverage means usage of debt capital in addition to the equity capital in order to increase the profit. Increase in leverage is understood as increase in riskiness and volatility.  
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market Risk Premium
(Equity Risk Premium)   Every investment carries some level of risk and some level of potential return. Those two measures are closely related in investment finance and are used in CAPM which calculates cost of eq
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/market_risk_premium

Front-End Load
  Front-end load (sales fee) was a very popular load fee in investment market for decades. This fee is paid by investors during the acquisition of mutual fund units and is some percentage (0%-5%) on the invested am
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/frontend_load

Load Fee
  'Load fee' is a fee that is paid during the selling process of the mutual fund. The sales load fee is also called as sales fee or distribution fee because normally it is paid by investor during sales-distribution
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/load_fee

About Us
  The website INVESTING FOR BEGINNERS EU was created in order to educate investors and other participants of the financial markets in accordance to the highest standards.    Investment process is not re
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Internal Rate of Return
  An internal rate of return (IRR) is a ratio used very often to measure a profitability of some investment project. IRR is determined as a discount rate when NPV of the project is equal to zero. If IRR is higher t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/internal_rate_of_return


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