Investing for Beginners .EU, investing If you owe the bank $100 that's your problem. If you owe the bank $100 million, that's the bank's problem.
J. Paul Getty

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Investment in Bulgaria
  Starting from the very beginning I will try to make clear why I am bullish about investing Bulgarian stock market. At first I would suggest to look at the chart below.   Five year Bulgarian stock market in

Investing in Land - Agricultural REITs
  Investing in land I have noticed an increased interest in agricultural land investments during the last period. And I can it understand completely. When stocks are so volatile and bonds may offer such low return

Baltic Investment
  Baltic Stock Exchange   Baltic stock exchange now belongs to the world gigantic stock exchange NASDAQ OMX, and now is called NASDAQ OMX Baltic. Historically Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia had their own nati

Investing 10 NOT
  INVESTING 10 things that you should try NOT to do:     Do not let the emotions to take over control. The investment market is always full of emotions. It is very important to maintain sanity and

Investment in Mutual Funds
Investment Funds (Collective Investment) Investment in mutual funds is one of the most popular types of investment. A mutual fund is just a large and well diversified investment portfolio of many securities, in which ca

Terminal Value
  Terminal value is a value of the business (or other asset) used in discounted cash flow (DCF) method that is added after the discontinuing of the cash flow forecasting.   DCF valuation is based on the sum

  Speculation is an investment action made under intentions to earn large profits in short term. Usually such actions are very risky and lays somewhere between investing and gambling. It is hard to say where exactl

FOREX Market
  FOREX market (foreign exchange market) is a global network of trading in different currencies. It is the most liquid financial market with huge turnovers continuously without breaks. Lot commercial banks, central

  A shareholder (stockholder) is a individual or company that owns some shares of stock in a corporation. Technically, every investor who is investing in shares is a shareholder for as long as he holds those s

Book Value of Share
  A book value of share is calculated dividing all company’s book value (less preferred equity) by its common share number. For example, if company’s book value is 1,000,000 USD and issued share nu

Investment Tactics
  Investment tactics are the rules for investment actions that help to react on market conditions and achieve more efficient results. Investment tactics deal with lower scale questions than investment strategy, whi

Private Equity Fund
  A private equity fund is a fund that invests in a stakes of non-listed companies (private equity). Investment in private equity funds is much different from investment in mutual funds. They are illiquid, riskier

Small Cap Stocks
  Small cap stocks are stocks of lower market capitalization. All stocks may be classified to large cap, mid cap and small cap (if ignoring mega, nano and other modern classification caps). There is no united class

  A corporation is a legal business form that is dominating over capital world. Most of the biggest businesses in the world are working under corporation form. Capital raising, transferring of shares, mergers &

Mortgage Markets
  Mortgage markets are markets, in which credits, that include pledged real estate property, are created and traded. Usually in mortgage markets main players are financial institutions: retail banks sell such mortg

Primary Markets
  Primary markets are the markets, in which new capital investments are raised. The perfect example of primary market is an IPO, but even if it is not the first issue of securities for the company, it still counts

Secondary Markets
  Secondary markets are markets, in which securities are traded, but not acquired directly from the issuers. This is why secondary markets differ from primary markets, where securities are bought directly from issu

Penny Stocks
  Penny stocks used to be described as stocks which price on stock exchange are lower than 1$ or 5$ (there is no officially approved norm). However, it is not very fair to judge a company for its share price on exc

  Investment management is a complete science and if you are expecting to become a professional investment manager in few hours you should get disappointed. However, there are several most important guidelines at i

Margin Trading
  Margin trading is trading in securities when part of the investment portfolio is financed by borrowed money (the other part by your own capital). For example, you have investment portfolio of value $20k, end you

P/B Ratio
P/B (P/Bv or price-to-book) ratio shows how expensive stock is compared to its books value. Company’s book value (also called equity, capital, shareholders funds etc.) is equal to company’s total assets les

DCF Valuation
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis   DCF valuation might be applied to any asset that generates positive free cash flow or is expected to generate that cash flow in the future. DCF valuation might be directly applied t

  CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) is method widely used for equity cost calculation. Equity cost should show the return that investor should expect/seek from an investment that contains specific level of risk.&n

Free Float
  Free float is a proportion of company’s shares that are really traded in the market. Normally, free float is lower than the total outstanding number of shares, because most of the largest shareholders do no

Market Making
  Market making is a service provided by brokerage company to some listed company to increase liquidity in stock trading on stock exchange. Usually brokerage company gets paid for this service and has to maintain s

Financial Investment
  Financial investment is any financial asset that should provide a return for investor. Financial asset is an asset that doesn’t have tangible form and has some financial obligations to its owner. All securi

Go Public
  Go public means to get company’s shares listed on the stock exchange; the process also called floatation. To go public, company has to hire some investment banking firm that would help to execute an IPO (in

  Floatation means going public through an IPO. If companies go public they have to get listed their shares on some stock exchange. Each company’s may choose any stock exchange, but normally smaller companies

Market Value
  The meaning of market value depends on the context for which the term is applied. Generally, market value is a price at which the buyer would agree to buy and seller would agree to sell the object without any ext

Stock Price
  A stock price is the last price of a share (stock) that was traded in a stock exchange for a particular stock. If stock exchange is closed at the moment, then the last stock price will be closing price for that s

Trading Volume
  Trading volume is an amount of securities that was traded in the market over some period. Usually volume is measured for a trading session (day), week or month but other periods also may be used. Higher number of

  (1) Market liquidity is a characteristic of a security or other traded investment that shows how easy it is convertible in to cash at a market value. Usually when investor decides to sell some investment and

Bid Price
  Bid price is the highest price at which buyer is willing to buy specific amount of securities. Investors often leave their buy orders through their brokerage account while each buy order that stays in the exchang

Bid-Ask Spread
  Bid-ask spread is the difference between the bid price and the ask price, or in other words it is a difference between the best offered price of a seller and the best given price by a buyer for a particular secur

Real Estate Investment Management
  Real estate investment management is a management of real estate portfolio. Real estate investments are different from standard investments (securities) and management of real estate investments differs from inve

Private Equity Investor
  Private equity investor is a corporation or individual that is investing in stakes of unlisted companies. The only different between equity investor and private equity investor is that the last one invests in unl

Balance Sheet
  Balance sheet is one of the three main financial statements (others are income statement and cash flow statement). Balance sheet also might be called a statement of financial position because this statement expla

Turnover Ratio
  (1) Turnover ratio of mutual fund shows how quickly assets of the fund are changing. Actively managed investment funds have higher turnover ratio than passively managed funds, and normally turnover ratio is measu

Cash Investments
  Cash investments are the safest investments over short-term period. Such investments include saving accounts, certificates of deposit, money market instruments (treasury bills, money market funds). The main crite

Financial Ratios
  Financial ratios are ratios that are used in financial analysis or in other words that are using financial data of a company. Such financial data usually is found in financial statements (income statement, balanc

Quick Ratio
  Quick ratio (also called ‘acid test ratio’) is a financial ratio that measures company’s financial liquidity. This ratio compares company’s most liquid assets and short-term liabilities. I

Current Ratio
  Current ratio is a financial ratio that measures company’s financial liquidity in short term. In simple words, this ratio compares company’s short-term assets to its short term liabilities. If short-t

Cash Ratio
  Cash ratio is a financial ratio that measures company’s financial liquidity over short term. It compares company’s cash reserves to short-term liabilities. If ‘cash ratio’ is high, it may

Capital Adequacy Ratio
  Capital adequacy ratio is the main financial ratio for banks to measure whether the bank has enough of capital on which depends the riskiness of the bank. Banks are borrowing money from other depositors and it is

Loan to Deposit Ratio
Loan to deposit ratio is financial ratio used for banks or other financial institutions. This ratio compares bank’s loan portfolio to deposit portfolio and measures financial liquidity of the institution.  &n

Loans to Assets Ratio
  ‘Loans to assets ratio’ is a financial ratio that usually is applied for banks (or credit unions) to measure the relation of the bank’s loan portfolio to the total assets.   Providing loa

Reserve Ratio
  Reserve ratio (reserve requirement or cash reserve ratio) is a ratio that is used by central bank of an area to regulate the financial market. This financial ratio compares the cash of the bank to the deposits th

liquidity Ratio
  liquidity ratio is a ratio that measures company’s liquidity. At first, it is needed to mention that liquidity may have two meanings: financial liquidity of a company or market liquidity of some asset. Liqu

Book Value
  There are two main types of values that are used in finance: Book value  Market value   Book value is a value that is recorded in the balance sheet of a company. Every asset of the company must

Privately Held Corporation
  Privately held corporation or closely held corporation is a company, which doesn’t have its shares listed on the stock exchange. If a corporation is closely held it not necessary means that it is small busi

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