Investing for Beginners .EU, investing Economics is extremely useful as a form of employment for economists.
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Investing in Russia
  Investing in Russia has gotten really widely promoted for the last period. I can remember the talks that stocks in Russia are the cheapest over the world for not less than year. The fact, that those stocks are st

What to Do With Investments in Current Turbulence?
  The question is really not an easy one. The problem is that there is no left any good investments on this world. Let’s looks at the most topical investments classes:   Stocks. Even before

Investing in Land - Agricultural REITs
  Investing in land I have noticed an increased interest in agricultural land investments during the last period. And I can it understand completely. When stocks are so volatile and bonds may offer such low return

Interest Coverage Ratio
  Interest coverage ratio shows company’s ability to pay interests for its financial debts. Interest coverage ratio is a ratio between operating profit (EBIT to be more exact) and expenses for interests. The

  Investing - what is that exactly? Probably you have heard many different definitions of investing. However, what is the essence of it? The essence is very simple: investing - a present sacrifice for the future.If

Investment in Property
Investment in housing and commercial real estate I don‘t know why, but historically in most places almost every countryman becomes to a property investment expert, or at least he thinks he is. And perhaps that's q

Investing in Funds
Investment Funds Strategy   Indeed, investing in mutual funds is not complete investment strategy, but only a part of it, or more precisely, only the choice of investment instrument. For example, if the strategy d

Investments in Ultra ETF
  Ultra ETF by most characteristics is similar to normal ETF but there is one main difference: if Ultra ETF follows the same index as normal ETF does, it makes it twice. For example, if normal ETF follows index tha

Investment in Normal ETF
  Normal ETF (exchange-traded fund) is an ETF that is not a Short ETF/Ultra ETF. Usually ETF is a traded index fund that follows some specific index (might be various indices: equities, bonds, commodities, specific

Initial Public Offering (IPO)
  An initial public offering (IPO) is a first introduce of company’s shares to the stock market. However, during initial public offering shares are sold not on the stock exchange but on network of clients by

Net Present Value (NPV)
  Net present value (NPV) is a value calculated by discounting all future net cash flows (net cash flow is calculated taking all the forecasted future income and subtracting from them forecasted expenses in every p

Investment Management Fees
  Investment management fees (fees that are paid straight to investment manager) basically are one of these types:   Performance based fee. Performance based fee is calculated according to increase of inve

Total expense Ratio
  ‘Total expense ratio shows all expenses of investment fund. It is a good measure that shows you how much of different fees you are really paying when investing in some fund. Total expense ratio is a percent

  Investment management is a complete science and if you are expecting to become a professional investment manager in few hours you should get disappointed. However, there are several most important guidelines at i

Return on Investment
  Return on investment (ROI) is a percentage that shows profitability of an investment or investment portfolio. Return on investment calculation:   CALCULATION:   Return on investment = net in

EBITDA Multiple   EV/EBITDA ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization). EV to EBITDA multiple is mostly used by professionals because

Discounted Cash Flow
  Discounted cash flow (DCF) is forecasted net cash flow of the company or other asset that is recalculated (discounted) to its current value. Discounted cash flow is important for investment assessing and mostly i

  WACC (Weighted Average Capital Cost) shows cost of capital when capital is consisted of both equity and debt capital. So WACC simply calculates the weighted average between equity cost and debt cost.

  OIBDA or also called operating income before depreciation and amortization is a financial measure used to represent specific type of an income. There are many types of income and each of those has some advantages

EBITDA Coverage Ratio
  EBITDA coverage ratio (also called EBITDA to Interest Coverage Ratio) shows company’s capability to deal with its financial leverage. If this ratio is too low, that may show company is in trouble and may ha

  EBITDA margin is a profitability margin that shows how much of EBITDA earns company’s revenue relatively. The EBITDA margin is the best for profitability comparison of the companies if you want to measure e

  ROA (Return on Assets) shows what profits are earned by company’s assets. Of course, assets alone usually do not earn the profit, because most of the times profit is the result of know-how and hard work of

Investment Products
  Investment products basically are investments that are packed and adopted for every investor. The best example of investment product could be mutual funds or any other investment funds that are well diversified a

No-Load Fund
  No-Load fund is a fund that does not have a load fee which is paid by investor that acquires the mutual fund. There are two types of load fees: front-end load and back-end load, and ‘no-load fund’ sho

Index Options
  Index options are derivative financial instruments that provide for the buyer of the option the right (possibility) to make profits from index value changes. It may be a good investing instrument for the investor

Stock Trader
  A stock trader is a speculator that is trying to make profits from quick changes in value of stocks or other securities that he trades. Stock trader have few differences from normal investor and the main differen

Passive Investment
  Passive investment (management) is an investment style when investors skips the steps of securities picking and market timing and invests mainly in index funds that have the lowest expenses.    P

Financial Statements
  Financial statements are periodically by the companies issued reports that provide the most important financial information about company’s financial condition and success of activity.    There

Income Statement
  Income statement (also called statement of operations, profit and loss statement, P&L or other) is one of three main financial statements reported by the companies periodically. Income statement exposes compa

  Earnings are calculated gains of the company and should represent the profit of that business. There are several types of earnings:   Retained earnings are equal to net profit less dividends. Net earnin

  The term income may have several meanings. In corporate finance it basically means profit or earnings that are equal to revenue less expenses. But in some cases income may also indicate company’s revenue bu

Net Income
  Net income (net profit) is a financial indicator of the company that shows the real profitability of the business in accordance to its capital structure. Net income is equal to all revenue and gains less all expe

  Loss (net loss) is a financial situation of the company when its revenue is lower than expenses. It is natural that every company tries to receive a profit instead of a loss, but not every succeeds that. Some com

Operating Income
  Operating income (operating profit) is the type of company’s profit that comes from operating activity. That means operating profit is lower than gross income by operating expenses but higher than pre-tax p

Operating Margin
  Operating margin is a profitability percentage that shows what company’s profit margin is before it pays interests and taxes. Operating margin simply ignores capital structure (because ignores financial act

  EBIT (also called Earnings Before Interest and Taxes) is a financial indicator of the company that provides information about company’s profitability while ignoring the impact of capital structure and corpo

Profitability Analysis
  The main purpose of profitability analysis is to determine the profit margin and compare it to the appropriate financial data. Profitability should not be confused with return because profitability is based on so

Debt Coverage Ratio
  Debt coverage ratio (debt service coverage ratio) is a ratio that measures solvency risk and mostly is applied for property projects. There are many debt coverage ratios that are used in financial practice on thi

Times Interest Earned Ratio
  ‘Times interest earned ratio' compares ‘earnings before interest and taxes’ of the company to its interest expenses. Low ratio means that company may be in dangerous situation and its interest e

Debt to EBITDA
  Debt to EBITDA (also known as D/EBITDA or Debt/EBITDA) is widely used ratio that measures how big company’s debt is compared to its EBITDA (earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortization). EBI

Financial Planning
  Financial planning is a type of financial analysis of which goal is to predict financial situation of the object in the future. There are two main trends where financial planning can be applied: in corporate fina

Turnover Ratio
  (1) Turnover ratio of mutual fund shows how quickly assets of the fund are changing. Actively managed investment funds have higher turnover ratio than passively managed funds, and normally turnover ratio is measu

Cash Coverage Ratio
  Cash coverage ratio measures company’s ability to repay its debts. It compares EBITDA (type of earnings) of the company and interest that is paid for company’s debts annually. EBITDA is not exactly eq

Financial Forecasting
  Financial forecasting is a part of financial planning and also a part of a DCF valuation. But usually financial planning covers only a period of year or two while financial forecasting regularly covers about five

Financial Planning Process
  Financial planning process requires the most professionalism and attention to the every detail. While financial planning estimates main financial indicators or financial statements, the process of it includes als

Working Capital Management
  Why Working Capital Is Important? Working capital is one of the main parts of company’s finances and every manager, even of the small company, manages working capital despite the fact he knows about that o

Stocks and Commodities
  You may ask how stocks and commodities related are. And the answer is simple: everything is related and especially in financial markets. Normally, if some of the main asset class (as stocks) looses or gains

Pro Forma
  Pro forma is a type of financial statement that reflects financial information under some conditional basis. For example, if company has discontinued some activity, it may provide normal income statement and pro

Before Tax Cost of Debt
  Before tax cost of debt (or pretax cost of debt) usually is a standard cost of debt. When you determine the interest rate paid by the company for its debt, it is equal to debt cost before tax. However, interest e

After Tax Cost of Debt
  There are two types of the debt cost: ‘before tax cost of debt’ and after tax cost of debt. The only difference between those is that the first one is equal to the interest rate paid by company while

  Opex (operating expense) are expenses of the business and are related to the operational activity of the company.  Basically, every company has few types of expenses: COGS (cost of sales) include costs t

Cost of Debt Calculation
  The cost of debt is easy to calculate if they are required data. Actually, there are few methods to get the cost of debt, but some of those are more accurate some less. If you want that your result would be more

Price to Free Cash Flow
  Price to free cash flow (P/FCF) or EV/FCF ratio are ratios that compare company's price to its free cash flow. The main difference between those two ratios is that EV/FCF also includes the eff

Price to Cash Flow Ratio
  Price to cash flow ratio (P/CF) and EV/CF ratio are similar but there are some differences. The main difference is that EV/CF also includes the effect of company’s financial debt which says a different

Free Cash Flow Yield
  Free cash flow yield (FCF yield) show how much of cash that may be distributed to shareholders the business earns compared to its price on the stock exchange (including both: equity value and debt value or just e

  Capex (capital expenditure) is company’s investment in long-term assets that are needed to continue the business or for future’s growth. The perfect examples of capital expenditure can be an acquisiti

  EBITA (earnings before interest, taxes and amortization) is a financial indicator that shows company’s earnings which are equal to pretax profit plus corporate tax and amortization.    EBITA is

Intangible Assets
  All assets can be classified to three main groups: tangible assets, financial assets and intangible assets. Intangible assets are those assets that aren’t financial and don’t have a real physical form

Coverage Ratios
  Coverage ratios are financial ratios that measure the ability of the company to repay its financial liabilities. Such ratios compare company’s operating income (or other type of income) or operating cash fl

Net Interest Income
  Net interest income is an indicator that measures lending business performance of a financial institution. Basically, it is equal to interest income from loans and other assets less interest expenses for deposits

Net Interest Margin
Net interest margin shows the profitability of the lending business for a bank or other financial institution. Lending business is the core business for most of the banks, and the profitability of this operational segmen

Cost/Income Ratio
  Cost/income ratio is very popular financial ratio in bank analysis. This ratio measures the relation of bank’s operating costs to operating income. Basically, lower ratio is better because means higher prof

Days Payable Outstanding
  ‘Days payable outstanding’ ratio shows how long it takes the company to pay its liabilities to the suppliers. The longer period means that company is not in a hurry to settle up its debts to the suppl

Front-End Load
  Front-end load (sales fee) was a very popular load fee in investment market for decades. This fee is paid by investors during the acquisition of mutual fund units and is some percentage (0%-5%) on the invested am

Load Fee
  'Load fee' is a fee that is paid during the selling process of the mutual fund. The sales load fee is also called as sales fee or distribution fee because normally it is paid by investor during sales-distribution

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