Investing for Beginners .EU, investing The rich get richer. Not only because they have surpluses with which to invest, but because of the overriding emotional release they experience from having wealth
Stuart Wilde

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Investing in Gold (I)
I will not be the first, and probably also will not be the last, who spoke about the Gold Rush that shakes down the world for the last few years. Just in this time it is a little different than in the days when desired f

Is the Bubble of Commodities Going Down?
  It can be said that commodity bubble already went down. The prices of the most commodities have slumped significantly during several last months. But was there really a bubble? Yes, the prices have

Interest Coverage Ratio
  Interest coverage ratio shows company’s ability to pay interests for its financial debts. Interest coverage ratio is a ratio between operating profit (EBIT to be more exact) and expenses for interests. The

Investment in Stocks
Stocks (shares) are investments that attract the most attention in financial markets, and perhaps stocks are worth it, because investors can expect the highest return from stocks among the range of traditional investme

Investing for Retirement
Investing for retirement may be one of the most reasonable investment objectives. Sometimes, people invest so they can afford expensive things that they otherwise could not afford without investing. For example

Investment in Property
Investment in housing and commercial real estate I don‘t know why, but historically in most places almost every countryman becomes to a property investment expert, or at least he thinks he is. And perhaps that's q

Terminal Value
  Terminal value is a value of the business (or other asset) used in discounted cash flow (DCF) method that is added after the discontinuing of the cash flow forecasting.   DCF valuation is based on the sum

Investment in Swaps
  Swaps - an investment tool used rarely at investing process. Typically, these contracts are used by financial institutions or other big companies in order to exchange cash flows in different currencies. In fact,

Value Investing
Investment strategy - Value Investing   Investing in value stocks is fundamentally different from investing in the growth companies. Stocks of growth company will rise up impressively during bull market when value

Investing in Unprofitable Companies
Investment Strategy - Unprofitable Companies Investing in companies that are still unprofitable is more difficult than investing in profitable companies, but may also be very successful. If the company will turn around

Net Debt
  Definition   'Net debt' is used quite often in finance and it is equal to financial liabilities of the company that are reduced by the cash amount (and cash equivalents) that are held by the company.

Investment Techniques
  Investment techniques are some combination of investment strategies and investment tactics. Investment techniques usually are middle term oriented procedures that help to reach some predetermined result. It may i

  Dividends are capital payments from companies to theirs shareholders. Normally dividends are paid by cash and usually but necessary once a year. Every company’s common share of the same class gets equal div

Dividend Yield
  A dividend yield is a ratio that shows how much investor gets dividends from the stock compared to its price. It is calculated dividing dividend per share by the share price.    Dividend yield is impo

Dividend Policy
  A dividend policy is a company’s written practice that describes dividend payments scale over time. Dividend policy may be as short as target dividend payout ratio or also include some reaction to a ch

True Investment
  True investment is a term used by Benjamin Graham to describe an investment that fits all his criteria of investment philosophy (policy). Later this term was used by Warren Buffet, but he followed Benjamin’

Blue Chip Stocks
  Blue chip stocks are stocks of the biggest large cap companies. Blue chip stocks usually are safer than average investment in stocks, have stable cash flow and pay stable dividends according dividend policy. Blue

Business Valuation
  The goal of business valuation is to determine the correct market value of a business. Usually business valuation is performed by professional valuators / assessors who have required qualifications for the job.&n

Dividend Growth Stocks
  Dividend growth stocks are stocks that are hard to find in reality. Because the stock must be either value stock (large dividend payments) either growth stock (small dividend payments) or either something in betw

Value Stocks
  Value stocks are opposite to growth stocks and attract investors not by growth perspectives but by stable cash and dividend flow. Market ratios (P/E, P/B and other) of value stocks are low and together with high

Value Penny Stocks
  Value penny stocks are stocks that have characteristics of both: value stock and penny stock. Investment in value penny stocks isn’t very popular, because stock investors who seek for safety invest in norma

Net Present Value (NPV)
  Net present value (NPV) is a value calculated by discounting all future net cash flows (net cash flow is calculated taking all the forecasted future income and subtracting from them forecasted expenses in every p

Corporate Finance
  Corporate finance is a niche of finance that deals with financial questions related to corporations.    The main goal of every company should be stockholders wealth maximization, but to achieve that m

Investment Finance
  Investment finance is finance that is related to investment. Investment market is a part of financial market, so we can say that investment is a part of finance.    Investment finance specializes on f

Valuation Multiples
  Valuation multiples are stock ratios that include in the calculation share price and show whether stock is cheap or expensive compared to similar stocks.     Valuation multiples (or just multiples) ar

P/NAV Ratio
Price to Net Asset Value    P/NAV ratio shows how expensive share is compared to its NAV (net asset value). This ratio is very similar to P/B ratio but in this case market values (not book values) are used. M

EBITDA Multiple   EV/EBITDA ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization). EV to EBITDA multiple is mostly used by professionals because

Stock Valuation
  Stock valuation is very important part of investing in stocks, and this part is the most time consuming and knowledge requiring. Stock valuation is a necessary and main step at stock picking process. The only way

DCF Valuation
Discounted cash flow Analysis   DCF valuation might be applied to any asset that generates positive free cash flow or is expected to generate that cash flow in the future. DCF valuation might be directly applied t

Replacement Cost Valuation
  Replacement cost valuation method is not very popular at stock valuation. Most of the investors are picking stocks with help of relative valuation or DCF valuation. Only when those two methods aren’t possib

Discounted cash flow
  Discounted cash flow (DCF) is forecasted net cash flow of the company or other asset that is recalculated (discounted) to its current value. Discounted cash flow is important for investment assessing and mostly i

  OIBDA or also called operating income before depreciation and amortization is a financial measure used to represent specific type of an income. There are many types of income and each of those has some advantages

  M&A (mergers & acquisitions) is a field of corporate finance in which corporations are acquiring other companies or are merging in between. Theoretically it doesn’t sound very impressive, but in rea

Leveraged Buyout
  A leveraged buyout (LBO) is a takeover of a company when debt capital is the main financing source for the acquisition and the acquired assets are used as collateral to receive the needed debt. The LBO may be exe

Valuation Methods
  There are three main valuation methods used for business valuation or stock valuation:  Relative valuation is very easy to use and is the fastest method. That is why this method is so popular among fina

Asset Valuation
  The specifics of asset valuation depend on particular asset class. However, the main valuation methods are the same for all assets. The mostly used methods are relative valuation and DCF valuation. Relative valua

Small Business Valuation
  Small business valuation is not much different from standard business valuation. However, small business valuation is faster to perform because there is less financial and business data to analyze and less time c

Financial Statements
  Financial statements are periodically by the companies issued reports that provide the most important financial information about company’s financial condition and success of activity.    There

Balance Sheet
  Balance sheet is one of the three main financial statements (others are income statement and cash flow statement). Balance sheet also might be called a statement of financial position because this statement expla

cash flow Statement
  cash flow statement is one of the three main financial statements (others are income statement and balance sheet). If income statement exposes income that was received according accounting standards, cash flow st

Financial Analysis
  Financial analysis is an important part of investing, especially if investor wants better results from his investments. Of course it is possible to ignore financial analysis and make investment decisions based on

  Solvency analysis takes an important part in financial analysis and mostly is used by creditors. Creditors of the business (bondholders, banks that provide loans) don’t care much if company’s profit w

Debt to Equity
  Debt to equity ratio (also known as D/E ratio, Debt/Equity) measures how big is company’s debt compared to its book capital (equity). The higher is the debt to equity ratio the higher is the insolvency risk

Debt to EBITDA
  Debt to EBITDA (also known as D/EBITDA or Debt/EBITDA) is widely used ratio that measures how big company’s debt is compared to its EBITDA (earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortization). EBI

Financial Planning
  Financial planning is a type of financial analysis of which goal is to predict financial situation of the object in the future. There are two main trends where financial planning can be applied: in corporate fina

Cash Debt Coverage Ratio
  ‘Cash debt coverage ratio’ (also known as ‘current cash debt coverage ratio’) measures company’s ability to repay its debts. Basically, it compares cash flow that is received from op

Cash Coverage Ratio
  Cash coverage ratio measures company’s ability to repay its debts. It compares EBITDA (type of earnings) of the company and interest that is paid for company’s debts annually. EBITDA is not exactly eq

cash flow Coverage Ratio
  cash flow coverage ratio measures company’s ability to repay its debt. This ratio compares operating cash flow of the company to its debts.  If ratio is low (lower than 0.2), it may indicate potential

Financial Planning Process
  Financial planning process requires the most professionalism and attention to the every detail. While financial planning estimates main financial indicators or financial statements, the process of it includes als

Cost of Debt
  Cost of debt shows what the capital cost of the company for its debt capital is. Basically company’s capital consists of two parts: debt capital and equity capital. (A mixed capital like mezzanine financing

Price to Free cash flow
  Price to free cash flow (P/FCF) or EV/FCF ratio are ratios that compare company's price to its free cash flow. The main difference between those two ratios is that EV/FCF also includes the eff

Price to cash flow Ratio
  Price to cash flow ratio (P/CF) and EV/CF ratio are similar but there are some differences. The main difference is that EV/CF also includes the effect of company’s financial debt which says a different

Free cash flow Yield
  Free cash flow yield (FCF yield) show how much of cash that may be distributed to shareholders the business earns compared to its price on the stock exchange (including both: equity value and debt value or just e

Free cash flow
  Free cash flow of the company shows how much of cash business has earned in the reality over the period. There are many ways to determine the free cash flow of the company, and most often this indicator is provid

  Capex (capital expenditure) is company’s investment in long-term assets that are needed to continue the business or for future’s growth. The perfect examples of capital expenditure can be an acquisiti

Operating cash flow
  Operating cash flow or ‘cash flow from operations’ (CFFO) is one of the most important among financial indicators and is used to measure company’s results in cash terms. While net income or oper

  NOPAT (‘net operating profit after tax’ or ‘after tax operating profit’) is equal to operating profit less taxes. It is adjusted by tax rate because the part cost of debt which is part of

  CFROI or cash flow return on investment is a rate of return that measures the performance of corporation based on its cash flow generation ability. CFROI is not very popular but is still used by some companies an

Financial Ratios
  Financial ratios are ratios that are used in financial analysis or in other words that are using financial data of a company. Such financial data usually is found in financial statements (income statement, balanc

Fundamental Analysis
  Fundamental analysis is the type of financial analysis that relies on company’s fundamentals. Those fundamentals depend on the target of the analysis. For example, fundamental analysis of stock depends on i

Technical Analysis of Stocks
  Technical analysis of stocks is widely known type of stock analysis. Technical analysis is completely opposite to fundamental analysis. While fundamental analysis relies on company’s ability to generate cas

Coverage Ratios
  Coverage ratios are financial ratios that measure the ability of the company to repay its financial liabilities. Such ratios compare company’s operating income (or other type of income) or operating cash fl

Liquidity Ratio
  Liquidity ratio is a ratio that measures company’s liquidity. At first, it is needed to mention that liquidity may have two meanings: financial liquidity of a company or market liquidity of some asset. Liqu

Equity to Asset Ratio
  Equity to asset ratio measures company’s riskiness by comparing its equity to its assets. If this ratio is very low (lower than 0.3), it might mean that company may be at risk if conditions of the market wo

Non-Operating Assets
  Non-operating assets are assets of the company that aren’t used in the main activity of the company. Such assets can be either financial or non-financial. This asset type is very important during the valuat

Market Risk Premium
(Equity Risk Premium)   Every investment carries some level of risk and some level of potential return. Those two measures are closely related in investment finance and are used in CAPM which calculates cost of eq

Internal Rate of Return
  An internal rate of return (IRR) is a ratio used very often to measure a profitability of some investment project. IRR is determined as a discount rate when NPV of the project is equal to zero. If IRR is higher t

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