Investing for Beginners .EU, investing Don't try to buy at the bottom and sell at the top. It can't be done except by liars.
Bernard Baruch

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Investing in Africa
Investing in Africa even sounds a little extreme. But investing in Africa not only sound extremely - it is like this in fact. If we would distinguish developed and emerging markets, then most of the Africa’s countr

Investing in Russia
  Investing in Russia has gotten really widely promoted for the last period. I can remember the talks that stocks in Russia are the cheapest over the world for not less than year. The fact, that those stocks are st

Investment in Bulgaria
  Starting from the very beginning I will try to make clear why I am bullish about investing Bulgarian stock market. At first I would suggest to look at the chart below.   Five year Bulgarian stock market in

Investing in Land - Agricultural REITs
  Investing in land I have noticed an increased interest in agricultural land investments during the last period. And I can it understand completely. When stocks are so volatile and bonds may offer such low return

Baltic Investment
  Baltic Stock Exchange   Baltic stock exchange now belongs to the world gigantic stock exchange NASDAQ OMX, and now is called NASDAQ OMX Baltic. Historically Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia had their own nati

European Dividend Stocks
  Before getting to the exact stocks, at first, please let me explain why I have chosen European dividend stocks as a topic. For the beginning, lets solve the question why dividend stocks. The true is that many inv

(Are you looking for investment definition?)   Investments are instruments that allow us to receive a higher amount of money than was spent. If someone spends 10 euros or dollars and he knows that he will receive

  Investing - what is that exactly? Probably you have heard many different definitions of investing. However, what is the essence of it? The essence is very simple: investing - a present sacrifice for the future.If

Investment in Mutual Funds
Investment Funds (Collective Investment) Investment in mutual funds is one of the most popular types of investment. A mutual fund is just a large and well diversified investment portfolio of many securities, in which ca

Investment in Commodities
Investment in Oil, gold, Silver, Copper, Wheat  Commodities (raw materials) are indeed a tangible asset class, but it can be also assigned to financial investments, because in current days most investments in commo

Asset Management
Definition    Asset management which also is called as investment management has many similarities to finance management but investment management is more specific and narrow area of finance. Invest

Non-Financial Investments
  When talks go about investing and investments everybody focuses on financial investments forgetting that spectrum of investments is much broader. Investment in non-financial investments is also popular, especiall

Terminal Value
  Terminal value is a value of the business (or other asset) used in discounted cash flow (DCF) method that is added after the discontinuing of the cash flow forecasting.   DCF valuation is based on the sum

Direct Investment
Investment in Tangible assets   Direct investment are very wide issue to study, but it‘s not so close to traditional investing. Direct investments are more related with business development and would depend

Investment in Options
  Options are very known derivatives and especially popular among investing speculators. Options has some attraction: every successful prediction can grow up invested amount a lot of times very quickly and potentia

Investment in Fund of Funds
  If each normal investment fund invests in underlying assets directly, the fund of funds is investing solely in other funds that invest directly in shares, bonds or other assets.If such funds distributors would ar

Value Investing
Investment strategy - Value Investing   Investing in value stocks is fundamentally different from investing in the growth companies. Stocks of growth company will rise up impressively during bull market when value

Net Debt
  Definition   'Net debt' is used quite often in finance and it is equal to financial liabilities of the company that are reduced by the cash amount (and cash equivalents) that are held by the company.

Finance Management
  Financial management, asset management, investment management, wealth management in fact are similar processes only called in different names. An investments definition may include both financial assets and real

Investment Manager
Investment management or finance management are particularly a lot of attention and responsibility requiring areas. It does not matter whether you manage your money whether corporate funds, in any case, it is important t

Investment Strategy by Age
  It is very popular to allocate asset classes in investment portfolio according to investor’s age. And it has some reasonable justification: when investor’s age is changing – his risk tolerance a

Investment Definition
  Investment definition may have two meanings:   1) An investment as a process (investing) when tangible or financial assets are acquired on purpose to earn more money (or other material benefits) than was s

OTC Market
  OTC (Over-The-Counter) market is decentralized market where financial assets are traded. Decentralized market means a contrast to the exchange trading. OTC market doesn’t have one place (no physical, no vir

  A shareholder (stockholder) is a individual or company that owns some shares of stock in a corporation. Technically, every investor who is investing in shares is a shareholder for as long as he holds those s

Stock Split
  A stock split is a divide of existing company’s shares decreasing its face value. For every owned share an investor gets a several (or one) additional shares depending on split ratio, and the total out

Book Value of Share
  A book value of share is calculated dividing all company’s book value (less preferred equity) by its common share number. For example, if company’s book value is 1,000,000 USD and issued share nu

Stock Buyback
  A stock buyback (share repurchase) is a company’s purchase of its own stock on the market. It is contrary way to pay out capital for shareholders to dividends. Stock buybacks are getting more and more

Asset Management
  Asset management is a process when assets acquired, monitored and sold on purpose to achieve optimal investment results. There is no strong difference between investment management and asset management. However,

Investment Portfolio
  An investment portfolio is a composition of different investments made on purpose to achieve the highest return at predetermined risk level. Investment portfolio can include all kinds of investments: stocks,

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)
  Real estate investment trust (REIT) is a corporate entity that invests exceptionally in to real estate sector. Usually securities of REIT’s are traded on stock exchange and every investor can easily acquire

Private Equity Fund
  A private equity fund is a fund that invests in a stakes of non-listed companies (private equity). Investment in private equity funds is much different from investment in mutual funds. They are illiquid, riskier

Mutual Fund
  A mutual fund is a collective investment vehicle that is consisted of fund units, which are sold for retail investors. Practically, mutual fund is a large investment portfolio, in which can take a part even small

  Derivatives are securities (financial instruments) that are created by financial intermediaries synthetically, and are based on price or value of some primer assets or indicator. Usually such underlying assets ar

  Securities are financial instruments that represent rights to some assets. Securities can be listed or non-listed. Listed securities are traded on securities exchanges, which commonly are called as stock exchange

Enterprise Value
  Enterprise value (EV) is a financial measure that is used to reflect the magnitude of the business. If market capitalization shows only the value of shareholders equity, enterprise value includes both: equity val

Holding Company
  Holding company is a type of a company which main activity is to invest in other companies. Holding as itself does not do any activity instead of managing their subsidiary companies and searching for new investme

Mortgage Bond
  A mortgage bond is a bond that has some collateral to make the security safer as investment. In case of bond default the creditor gets back his money or part of it from the sale of the assets that were pledged. U

Direct Investments in Stocks
  Direct investments in stocks are investments made without financial intermediaries (only theoretically). It means an investor buys stock directly from the company without intermediation of stock exchange or broke

Investment Management Fees
  Investment management fees (fees that are paid straight to investment manager) basically are one of these types:   Performance based fee. Performance based fee is calculated according to increase of inve

  Investment management is a complete science and if you are expecting to become a professional investment manager in few hours you should get disappointed. However, there are several most important guidelines at i

Investment Risk Management
  There are several main methods of investment risk management:    Diversification. Diversification is the easiest and most of the times the cheapest way to reduce risk level of the investment portfol

Working Capital
  Working capital can be calculated from balance sheet data. There are few ways to calculate working capital, but the most accurate is this one (for operating working capital):   Working capital = total curr

Working Investment
  Working investment mostly refers to working capital, which is equal to current assets less current liabilities.    The other meaning of working investments might be that those are investments that are

Foreign Direct Investment
  Foreign direct investment (FDI) traditionally was understood as investment that is made by foreign country in direct assets, for example factory, including land, building and machinery. When financial markets evo

  Deflation is a process opposite to inflation and occurs when inflation is negative. Deflation means that prices of goods and services are decreasing. Such situation when prices are decreasing is not very common i

P/B Ratio
P/B (P/Bv or price-to-book) ratio shows how expensive stock is compared to its books value. Company’s book value (also called equity, capital, shareholders funds etc.) is equal to company’s total assets les

P/NAV Ratio
Price to Net Asset Value    P/NAV ratio shows how expensive share is compared to its NAV (net asset value). This ratio is very similar to P/B ratio but in this case market values (not book values) are used. M

EV/S Ratio
Enterprise Value to Sales Ratio   EV/S ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its sales. This multiple is important when company is unprofitable or profits margins are very low and turnaround is expected in

EBITDA Multiple   EV/EBITDA ratio shows how expensive firm is compared to its EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization). EV to EBITDA multiple is mostly used by professionals because

EBIT Multiple   EV/EBIT ratio is identical to EV/EBITDA ratio. The only difference is that EBIT instead of EBITDA is used.    EBITDA differs from EBIT at depreciation and amortization (DA). So EBITDA i

Relative Valuation
Comparative analysis    Relative valuation is stock valuation method that gained its popularity because of simplicity and practical importance. The key principle of relative valuation is about valuation multi

DCF Valuation
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis   DCF valuation might be applied to any asset that generates positive free cash flow or is expected to generate that cash flow in the future. DCF valuation might be directly applied t

Replacement Cost Valuation
  Replacement cost valuation method is not very popular at stock valuation. Most of the investors are picking stocks with help of relative valuation or DCF valuation. Only when those two methods aren’t possib

Hedge Funds
  Hedge funds are investment funds that use financial leverage and derivatives to achieve better investment results. The name of hedge fund came from hedging, which originally is a defensive investment strategy, bu

Political Risk
  A political risk is related to political decisions and political environment development, and is one of the main risks when investing in emerging markets. Developed markets also contain political risk, but there

EBITDA Coverage Ratio
  EBITDA coverage ratio (also called EBITDA to Interest Coverage Ratio) shows company’s capability to deal with its financial leverage. If this ratio is too low, that may show company is in trouble and may ha

Total assets Turnover Ratio
  Total assets turnover ratio shows how much of sales company’s assets are generating. If the company has a lot invested in assets, but do not generate a lot of sales from those assets, it may show some ineff

Profitability Margins
  Profitability margins are ratios that show how profitable company’s activity is. There may be many kinds of profitability margins. Normally profitability means some kind of profit divided by revenue. But al

  ROE (Return on Equity) shows profitability of company’s book value. Company’s book value (equity) is equal to company’s assets less liabilities, and ROE is usually higher if company ha

  ROA (Return on assets) shows what profits are earned by company’s assets. Of course, assets alone usually do not earn the profit, because most of the times profit is the result of know-how and hard work of

Margin Calls
Margin call is a call by margin trading service provider to an investor who is buying on margin. Such calls are provided when assets (collateral) in the investment portfolio are losing value and reach the margin. Margin

Financial Investment
  Financial investment is any financial asset that should provide a return for investor. Financial asset is an asset that doesn’t have tangible form and has some financial obligations to its owner. All securi

Leveraged Buyout
  A leveraged buyout (LBO) is a takeover of a company when debt capital is the main financing source for the acquisition and the acquired assets are used as collateral to receive the needed debt. The LBO may be exe

Market Value
  The meaning of market value depends on the context for which the term is applied. Generally, market value is a price at which the buyer would agree to buy and seller would agree to sell the object without any ext

  Bearish is attitude of an investor if investor expects market to go down in the near future. Most often term bearish is applied for stock investments when is believed that stocks are going to decrease in value. T

Fund Manager
  A fund manager is an employee of investment management company which is responsible for the management of the fund’s assets. Most of the times, more than one person is involved in fund’s management bu

Financial assets
  There are two main investment (asset) classes: financial assets and non-financial (tangible) assets. Both of them may have similar characteristics as yielding or increasing in value over long period; but financia

Index Options
  Index options are derivative financial instruments that provide for the buyer of the option the right (possibility) to make profits from index value changes. It may be a good investing instrument for the investor

Investment Bubble
  Investment bubble is a jump in price of particular investment when price starts increasing faster and faster as long as the price reaches its peak and falls down to a similar to previous level, if there are no ot

Valuation Consultants
  Valuation consultants are professionals that know everything about the value of an asset or business. The real market value consists of many parts and all of them may have critical importance to the value. Only e

Asset Valuation
  The specifics of asset valuation depend on particular asset class. However, the main valuation methods are the same for all assets. The mostly used methods are relative valuation and DCF valuation. Relative valua

  (1) Market liquidity is a characteristic of a security or other traded investment that shows how easy it is convertible in to cash at a market value. Usually when investor decides to sell some investment and

Real Estate Investors
  Real estate investors are individuals or investment companies that are investing in real estate (property). There few main types of real estate investors:   • Real estate developers are investors that

Private Investors
  Private investors are individuals that are investing in to some assets for investment purpose. (1) There are two main types of investors: private investors and institutional investors (business investor). Also th

Financial Statements
  Financial statements are periodically by the companies issued reports that provide the most important financial information about company’s financial condition and success of activity.    There

Balance Sheet
  Balance sheet is one of the three main financial statements (others are income statement and cash flow statement). Balance sheet also might be called a statement of financial position because this statement expla

  Earnings are calculated gains of the company and should represent the profit of that business. There are several types of earnings:   Retained earnings are equal to net profit less dividends. Net earnin

  Profit is a term used in various finance fields and may have many meanings. Basically profit is the positive difference between the income and costs. If costs are higher than income, then instead of profit loss w

Operating Margin
  Operating margin is a profitability percentage that shows what company’s profit margin is before it pays interests and taxes. Operating margin simply ignores capital structure (because ignores financial act

Financial Analysis
  Financial analysis is an important part of investing, especially if investor wants better results from his investments. Of course it is possible to ignore financial analysis and make investment decisions based on

  Return analysis is different from profitability analysis because usually return is measured as a profitability of the assets, investments, capital or other similar asset group but not as a profitability of the re

Debt to Equity
  Debt to equity ratio (also known as D/E ratio, Debt/Equity) measures how big is company’s debt compared to its book capital (equity). The higher is the debt to equity ratio the higher is the insolvency risk

Debt to Asset Ratio
  Debt to asset ratio (also called as D/A ratio, Debt/Asset) measures how big is company’s debt compared to its assets. Debt to asset ratio is very similar to debt to equity (D/E) ratio but normally is lower

Debt to EBITDA
  Debt to EBITDA (also known as D/EBITDA or Debt/EBITDA) is widely used ratio that measures how big company’s debt is compared to its EBITDA (earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortization). EBI

Turnover Ratio
  (1) Turnover ratio of mutual fund shows how quickly assets of the fund are changing. Actively managed investment funds have higher turnover ratio than passively managed funds, and normally turnover ratio is measu

Asset Turnover Ratio Formula
  There are many modifications of ‘asset turnover ratio’ formulas.    These are the most popular forms of this ratio formula:   (1) Asset turnover ratio = Sales revenue / Total averag

Asset Turnover Ratio
  Asset turnover ratio compares company’s sales and assets in order to identify the efficiency of assets used in the business. In simple words, it shows show much of sales are generated by company’s ass

Working Capital Management
  Why Working Capital Is Important? Working capital is one of the main parts of company’s finances and every manager, even of the small company, manages working capital despite the fact he knows about that o

Working Capital Calculation
  There are few modifications of working capital calculation. All data that are needed for working capital calculation can be found in balance sheet (which is one the three main financial statements).

Working Capital Ratio
  Working capital ratio may have several meanings in practice:   (1) Working capital ratio = Working capital / Sales (2) Working capital ratio = Current ratio = Current assets / Current liabilities (3)

  Opex (operating expense) are expenses of the business and are related to the operational activity of the company.  Basically, every company has few types of expenses: COGS (cost of sales) include costs t

  Capex (capital expenditure) is company’s investment in long-term assets that are needed to continue the business or for future’s growth. The perfect examples of capital expenditure can be an acquisiti

Operating Cash Flow
  Operating cash flow or ‘cash flow from operations’ (CFFO) is one of the most important among financial indicators and is used to measure company’s results in cash terms. While net income or oper

  EBITA (earnings before interest, taxes and amortization) is a financial indicator that shows company’s earnings which are equal to pretax profit plus corporate tax and amortization.    EBITA is

Asset Performance
  Asset performance is a return of an asset over some period. Usually performance is measured on annual basis. But basically performance of any asset depends on its riskiness and the period (most of the stocks and

Economic Cycle
  What is economical cycle? An economic cycle means the repeated changes of the economical trends. While during very long economical period economy always has up-trend because of technological evolution and increa

Intangible assets
  All assets can be classified to three main groups: tangible assets, financial assets and intangible assets. Intangible assets are those assets that aren’t financial and don’t have a real physical form

Tangible assets
  Basically all assets can be divided in tangible assets or non-tangible assets (intangible and financial). Tangible assets are those assets that exist physically and the value of them depends on their physical con

  NOPAT (‘net operating profit after tax’ or ‘after tax operating profit’) is equal to operating profit less taxes. It is adjusted by tax rate because the part cost of debt which is part of

Rate of Return
  A rate of return is a percentage that shows what is the profit or loss gained on some investment on annual basis. There are many ways to calculate the rate of return including internal rate of return, arithmetica

Return on Invested Capital
  Return on invested capital (ROIC) or also called return on capital is a financial ratio employed to measure nominal company’s return that is earned by capital invested in operating asset. Basically return o

Financial Ratios
  Financial ratios are ratios that are used in financial analysis or in other words that are using financial data of a company. Such financial data usually is found in financial statements (income statement, balanc

Fixed Asset Turnover
  Fixed asset turnover ratio is a financial ratio that measures how much of sales are created by company’s property, plant and equipment. The ‘higher asset turnover’ is the better, because it mean

Quick Ratio
  Quick ratio (also called ‘acid test ratio’) is a financial ratio that measures company’s financial liquidity. This ratio compares company’s most liquid assets and short-term liabilities. I

Capital Employed
  Capital employed is a value of capital investments in a company. Basically, the capital of each company can be classified in these types of capital: Equity capital  Debt capital Working capital

Current Ratio
  Current ratio is a financial ratio that measures company’s financial liquidity in short term. In simple words, this ratio compares company’s short-term assets to its short term liabilities. If short-t

Cash Ratio
  Cash ratio is a financial ratio that measures company’s financial liquidity over short term. It compares company’s cash reserves to short-term liabilities. If ‘cash ratio’ is high, it may

Equity Ratio
  Equity ratio is a financial ratio that compares company’s equity to assets. Basically, it shows what part equity capital makes in total capital of a company. If ‘equity ratio’ is very high (clos

Return on Capital Employed
  Return on capital employed ratio (ROCE) measures company’s return compared to its employed capital. Return in this case is some kind of profit (mostly EBIT or NOPAT) and the capital employed means equity ca

Capital Adequacy Ratio
  Capital adequacy ratio is the main financial ratio for banks to measure whether the bank has enough of capital on which depends the riskiness of the bank. Banks are borrowing money from other depositors and it is

Net Interest Income
  Net interest income is an indicator that measures lending business performance of a financial institution. Basically, it is equal to interest income from loans and other assets less interest expenses for deposits

Interest Rate Spread
  ‘Interest rate spread’ is a very important measure for banks and other financial institutions. As money lending is the core business for most of the banks, it is very important that this operational s

Net Interest Margin
Net interest margin shows the profitability of the lending business for a bank or other financial institution. Lending business is the core business for most of the banks, and the profitability of this operational segmen

Non-Performing Loan Ratio
  Non-performing loan ratio measures the quality of the loan portfolio of the financial institution. This financial ratio compares non-performing loans to the total loan portfolio (loans are assets for the bank), a

Loan to Deposit Ratio
Loan to deposit ratio is financial ratio used for banks or other financial institutions. This ratio compares bank’s loan portfolio to deposit portfolio and measures financial liquidity of the institution.  &n

Loans to assets Ratio
  ‘Loans to assets ratio’ is a financial ratio that usually is applied for banks (or credit unions) to measure the relation of the bank’s loan portfolio to the total assets.   Providing loa

Reserve Ratio
  Reserve ratio (reserve requirement or cash reserve ratio) is a ratio that is used by central bank of an area to regulate the financial market. This financial ratio compares the cash of the bank to the deposits th

Cash Turnover Ratio
  Cash turnover ratio compares company’s sales to its cash and measures how effectively company is using cash assets. However, this financial ratio now is a bit outworn and is not very meaningful for most of

Liquidity Ratio
  Liquidity ratio is a ratio that measures company’s liquidity. At first, it is needed to mention that liquidity may have two meanings: financial liquidity of a company or market liquidity of some asset. Liqu

Equity to Asset Ratio
  Equity to asset ratio measures company’s riskiness by comparing its equity to its assets. If this ratio is very low (lower than 0.3), it might mean that company may be at risk if conditions of the market wo

Asset to Equity Ratio
  Asset to equity ratio compares company’s assets to the book value and measures the riskiness of the company. This ratio cannot be lower than 1.0, and if it is equal to 1, it means that assets are equal to e

Total Debt Ratio
  Total debt ratio compares total liabilities to total assets. The higher ratio represents riskier situation. And if this ratio is equal to 1.0, it would mean that liabilities are equal to assets or in other words

Non-Operating assets
  Non-operating assets are assets of the company that aren’t used in the main activity of the company. Such assets can be either financial or non-financial. This asset type is very important during the valuat

Book Value
  There are two main types of values that are used in finance: Book value  Market value   Book value is a value that is recorded in the balance sheet of a company. Every asset of the company must

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