Investing for Beginners .EU, investing A market is the combined behavior of thousands of people responding to information, misinformation and whim.
Kenneth Chang

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Operating Leverage
  An operating leverage is a company’s EBIT (earnings before taxes and financial operations) sensitivity to changes of sales. As the sensitivity is measured to Operating income (close to EBIT), the

  OIBDA or also called Operating income before depreciation and amortization is a financial measure used to represent specific type of an income. There are many types of income and each of those has some advantages

Financial Statements
  Financial statements are periodically by the companies issued reports that provide the most important financial information about company’s financial condition and success of activity.    There

Income Statement
  Income statement (also called statement of operations, profit and loss statement, P&L or other) is one of three main financial statements reported by the companies periodically. Income statement exposes compa

  The term income may have several meanings. In corporate finance it basically means profit or earnings that are equal to revenue less expenses. But in some cases income may also indicate company’s revenue bu

Net Income
  Net income (net profit) is a financial indicator of the company that shows the real profitability of the business in accordance to its capital structure. Net income is equal to all revenue and gains less all expe

Gross Income
  Gross income (gross profit) is equal to company’s revenue minus all cost of goods sold (COGS). Gross income is just one type of income; other types of income are Operating income, pre-tax income or net inco

Operating income
  Operating income (operating profit) is the type of company’s profit that comes from operating activity. That means operating profit is lower than gross income by operating expenses but higher than pre-tax p

Operating Margin
  Operating margin is a profitability percentage that shows what company’s profit margin is before it pays interests and taxes. Operating margin simply ignores capital structure (because ignores financial act

  EBIT (also called Earnings Before Interest and Taxes) is a financial indicator of the company that provides information about company’s profitability while ignoring the impact of capital structure and corpo

Times Interest Earned Ratio
  ‘Times interest earned ratio' compares ‘earnings before interest and taxes’ of the company to its interest expenses. Low ratio means that company may be in dangerous situation and its interest e

Financial Forecasting
  Financial forecasting is a part of financial planning and also a part of a DCF valuation. But usually financial planning covers only a period of year or two while financial forecasting regularly covers about five

Asset Turnover Ratio Formula
  There are many modifications of ‘asset turnover ratio’ formulas.    These are the most popular forms of this ratio formula:   (1) Asset turnover ratio = Sales revenue / Total averag

Strategic Financial Planning
  Strategic financial planning is a bit different from standard financial planning because standard financial planning focuses on a budget which is detailed estimation of financial statements when strategic financi

Operating Cash Flow
  Operating cash flow or ‘cash flow from operations’ (CFFO) is one of the most important among financial indicators and is used to measure company’s results in cash terms. While net income or oper

Return on Invested Capital
  Return on invested capital (ROIC) or also called return on capital is a financial ratio employed to measure nominal company’s return that is earned by capital invested in operating asset. Basically return o

Coverage Ratios
  Coverage ratios are financial ratios that measure the ability of the company to repay its financial liabilities. Such ratios compare company’s Operating income (or other type of income) or operating cash fl

Return on Capital Employed
  Return on capital employed ratio (ROCE) measures company’s return compared to its employed capital. Return in this case is some kind of profit (mostly EBIT or NOPAT) and the capital employed means equity ca

Cost/Income Ratio
  Cost/income ratio is very popular financial ratio in bank analysis. This ratio measures the relation of bank’s operating costs to Operating income. Basically, lower ratio is better because means higher prof

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