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Investing in Gold (I)
I will not be the first, and probably also will not be the last, who spoke about the Gold Rush that shakes down the world for the last few years. Just in this time it is a little different than in the days when desired f
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Investing in Africa
Investing in Africa even sounds a little extreme. But investing in Africa not only sound extremely - it is like this in fact. If we would distinguish developed and emerging markets, then most of the Africa’s countr
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_africa-p0-i8

US Debt Relief
  Let me give you few facts at first that we would now what are we talking about: The General government gross debt in percent of GDP in the United States was reported at 83.21 percent of GDP in 2009 (90% of GDP
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/us_debt_relief-p0-i13

How to Beat the Stock Market
  Investing is good, but the real challenge for every portfolio manager is to beat the stock market, or beat the market. Of course the term ‘market’ is not very exact. In reality to beat the market is t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/how_to_beat_the_stock_market-p0-i20

Baltic Investment
  Baltic Stock Exchange   Baltic stock exchange now belongs to the world gigantic stock exchange NASDAQ OMX, and now is called NASDAQ OMX Baltic. Historically Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia had their own nati
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/baltic_investment-p0-i21

Investing in financial institutions: why and how?
  A banking expert had said that conducting a thorough study on the financial health of a bank or credit institution is very important in investing. Actually, this is the investor’s primary homework, and this
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_financial_institutions_why_and_how-p0-i29

Derivatives
Derivative Financial Instruments Derivatives are so called because they are constructed from other traditional securities, and operate the rights to them. Apart from the fact that there are some basic derivative instrum
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Investing 10 NOT
  INVESTING 10 things that you should try NOT to do:     Do not let the emotions to take over control. The investment market is always full of emotions. It is very important to maintain sanity and
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Investment in Mutual Funds
Investment Funds (Collective Investment) Investment in mutual funds is one of the most popular types of investment. A mutual fund is just a large and well diversified investment portfolio of many securities, in which ca
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Investment in Property
Investment in housing and commercial real estate I don‘t know why, but historically in most places almost every countryman becomes to a property investment expert, or at least he thinks he is. And perhaps that's q
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_property

Terminal Value
  Terminal value is a value of the business (or other asset) used in discounted cash flow (DCF) method that is added after the discontinuing of the cash flow forecasting.   DCF valuation is based on the sum
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/terminal_value

Investment in Collectibles
  Many kinds of collectibles may also be considered as investments, but their value and benefits are much more elusive, than more serious traditional investment instruments. Works of art, stamps, antiques, coins,
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_collectibles

Investing in Commodities Directly
Investment in Oil, Gold, Silver Directly   Commodities has been already described as financial investment. It was assigned to financial investments because investors are investing in commodities not directly but w
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_commodities_directly

Investment in Index-Linked Bonds
  Index-linked bonds are also known as structured bonds. This product is more popular in immature investment markets, where investors are not sufficiently educated. Diversity of index-linked bonds can be very high,
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_indexlinked_bonds

Market Timing at Investing
Investing During Change of Economic Cycles - Market Timing Investment Strategy  Market timing is capturing of investment price movements "waves" trying to sell high and buy cheap. Simple as that.  Still it onl
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/market_timing_at_investing

Investing in Funds
Investment Funds Strategy   Indeed, investing in mutual funds is not complete investment strategy, but only a part of it, or more precisely, only the choice of investment instrument. For example, if the strategy d
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investing_in_funds

Online Investing
Few decades ago all the investors was acquiring stocks calling to broker by phone or using some other way to contact him. However, computerization of the world has changed investing significantly. Online investing became
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Investment in Normal ETF
  Normal ETF (exchange-traded fund) is an ETF that is not a Short ETF/Ultra ETF. Usually ETF is a traded index fund that follows some specific index (might be various indices: equities, bonds, commodities, specific
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_in_normal_etf

Speculation
  Speculation is an investment action made under intentions to earn large profits in short term. Usually such actions are very risky and lays somewhere between investing and gambling. It is hard to say where exactl
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Investment Decision
  An investment decision is a choice made by investor or investment manager trying to maximize the return and minimize the risk. The every decision maker tries to make the best choice for him, the same time better
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Initial Public Offering (IPO)
  An initial public offering (IPO) is a first introduce of company’s shares to the stock market. However, during initial public offering shares are sold not on the stock exchange but on network of clients by
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/initial_public_offering_ipo

Stock Exchange
  A stock exchange is an operator/company that takes bids from the sellers and buyers and executes transactions if conditions allow it. Usually stock exchanges offer trading not only for stocks but also for other f
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stock_exchange

Buying on Margin
  Buying on Margin COSTs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons Psychology: Is it worth?     Buying on margin gets popularity during every strong bull market. Unfortunately, it be
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/buying_on_margin

Institutional Investor
  An institutional investor is an investor that is a corporation/institution. Institutional investors have high impact to investment markets and sometimes decisions of most known institutional investment manag
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Hedge (Hedging)
  Hedge (hedging) is protection of investment portfolio against fluctuations using financial instruments. Hedge is very popular at investment theory, but not so popular at investment practice. In theory everything
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Credit Union
  A credit union is a financial intermediary institution controlled by its members, who brings deposits to the union and become a creditors of the institution. The principal services of the credit union are th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/credit_union

Mortgage Markets
  Mortgage markets are markets, in which credits, that include pledged real estate property, are created and traded. Usually in mortgage markets main players are financial institutions: retail banks sell such mortg
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/mortgage_markets

Risk-Free Interest Rate
  A risk-free interest rate  is rate of interests that would be paid by fixed income securities that contains no risk at all.    For a very long time short-term US Treasury securities was used to d
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/riskfree_interest_rate

Holding Company
  Holding company is a type of a company which main activity is to invest in other companies. Holding as itself does not do any activity instead of managing their subsidiary companies and searching for new investme
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/holding_company

Operating Leverage
  An operating leverage is a company’s EBIT (earnings before taxes and financial operations) sensitivity to changes of sales. As the sensitivity is measured to operating income (close to EBIT), the
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/operating_leverage

Investment Strategies
  Investment (investing) strategy – often discussed by both amateur and professional investors, but in fact very rarely encountered. Amateurs usually imagine that they has an investment strategy only after th
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_strategies

Financial Leverage
  A financial leverage is a use of borrowed money to achieve more efficient capital structure. A borrowed capital is cheaper than equity capital most of the times. So usage of loaned money makes weighted average ca
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/financial_leverage

Investment Management Fees
  Investment management fees (fees that are paid straight to investment manager) basically are one of these types:   Performance based fee. Performance based fee is calculated according to increase of inve
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_fees

Total Expense Ratio
  ‘Total expense ratio shows all expenses of investment fund. It is a good measure that shows you how much of different fees you are really paying when investing in some fund. Total expense ratio is a percent
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/total_expense_ratio

INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT – HOW TO MANAGE YOURS INVESTMENTS PROPERLY
  Investment management is a complete science and if you are expecting to become a professional investment manager in few hours you should get disappointed. However, there are several most important guidelines at i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_how_to_manage_yours_investments_properly

Investment Performance Measurement
  Many investors are happy about investment managers until the stock market is growing, but when the decline starts investment managers gets only the worst words about their job. However, this is wrong attitud
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_performance_measurement

Investment Risk Management
  There are several main methods of investment risk management:    Diversification. Diversification is the easiest and most of the times the cheapest way to reduce risk level of the investment portfol
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_risk_management

Working Capital
  Working capital can be calculated from balance sheet data. There are few ways to calculate working capital, but the most accurate is this one (for operating working capital):   Working capital = total curr
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/working_capital

P/E Ratio
  P/E ratio is the most popular valuation multiple that is used for stock analysis. This ratio shows the price of the stock compared to its earnings. The multiple is so popular because of its simplicity and im
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/p_e_ratio

COST of Equity
  COST of equity is the rate of return that is required by equity owners from their investment. Of course, requirements of the shareholders have to be real and meet market conditions as well. Basically COST of equi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_equity

Stock Valuation
  Stock valuation is very important part of investing in stocks, and this part is the most time consuming and knowledge requiring. Stock valuation is a necessary and main step at stock picking process. The only way
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/stock_valuation

Inventory Turnover Formula
  Inventory turnover formula helps to calculate inventory turnover ratio. There are few possible ways to calculate inventory turnover that are used in financial practice. You may see the formulas below:  
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/inventory_turnover_formula

Relative Valuation
Comparative analysis    Relative valuation is stock valuation method that gained its popularity because of simplicity and practical importance. The key principle of relative valuation is about valuation multi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/relative_valuation

DCF Valuation
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis   DCF valuation might be applied to any asset that generates positive free cash flow or is expected to generate that cash flow in the future. DCF valuation might be directly applied t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/dcf_valuation

Replacement COST Valuation
  Replacement COST valuation method is not very popular at stock valuation. Most of the investors are picking stocks with help of relative valuation or DCF valuation. Only when those two methods aren’t possib
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/replacement_cost_valuation

ADR (American Depository Receipt)
  ADR (American Depository Receipt) is a form of international stock trading when a certificate (security) that might be traded in some US stock exchange in US dollars and represents shares of foreign company. The
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/adr_american_depository_receipt

GDR (Global Depository Receipt)
  GDR (Global Depository Receipt) is a security’s certificate that is traded on some European stock exchange and represents shares of foreign company. GDR normally is denominated in one of the main currencies
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/gdr_global_depository_receipt

Depository Receipts
  Depository receipts are certificates that makes easier to invest in foreign stocks. Depository receipts lowers administration COSTs for foreign investment and makes foreign investments more trustful for local inv
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/depository_receipts

WACC
  WACC (Weighted Average Capital COST) shows COST of capital when capital is consisted of both equity and debt capital. So WACC simply calculates the weighted average between equity COST and debt COST.  
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/wacc

CAPM
  CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) is method widely used for equity COST calculation. Equity COST should show the return that investor should expect/seek from an investment that contains specific level of risk.&n
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/capm

Target Capital Structure
  Target capital structure is a mix of equity and debt capital that maximizes value of the shares. Target capital structure may be achieved when WACC (Weighted Average Capital COST) is minimal. If proportion of equ
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/target_capital_structure

Inventory Turnover Ratio
  Inventory turnover ratio shows how quickly company’s inventory is changing compared to its sales or COST of goods sold. This ratio shows how effectively inventory is managed in company’s production/di
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/inventory_turnover_ratio

EBITDA Margin
  EBITDA margin is a profitability margin that shows how much of EBITDA earns company’s revenue relatively. The EBITDA margin is the best for profitability comparison of the companies if you want to measure e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ebitda_margin

Profit Margin
  Profit margin normally refers to net profit margin, which is net profit divided by sales. But one should remember that profit might be of different kinds (net profit, pretax profit, EBIT, EBITDA and gross profit)
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/profit_margin

ROE
  ROE (Return on Equity) shows profitability of company’s book value. Company’s book value (equity) is equal to company’s assets less liabilities, and ROE is usually higher if company ha
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/roe

Margin Call
  Buying on Margin COSTs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons Psychology: Is it worth?     Margin call is a fabulous term which carries some mysticism. However, there is nothing
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/margin_call

The Pros and Cons of Buying on Margin
  Buying on Margin COSTs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons of Buying on Margin Psychology of Buying on Margin: Is it worth?     The opportunity provided by buying on margin i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/the_pros_and_cons_of_buying_on_margin

Psychology of Buying on Margin: Is it worth?
  Buying on Margin COSTs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons of Buying on Margin Psychology of Buying on Margin: Is it worth?     For the conclusion I would like to say that bu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/psychology_of_buying_on_margin_is_it_worth

COSTs of Buying Stocks on Margin
  Buying on Margin COSTs of Buying Stocks on Margin Margin Call The Pros and Cons Psychology: Is it worth?     We won’t talk about the possible losses in here. The goal of this paragraph is t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/costs_of_buying_stocks_on_margin

M&A
  M&A (mergers & acquisitions) is a field of corporate finance in which corporations are acquiring other companies or are merging in between. Theoretically it doesn’t sound very impressive, but in rea
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ma

Hostile Takeover
  A hostile takeover is an acquisition of a target company when its management doesn’t want the company to be overtaken by another corporation. The target of a hostile takeover may be only listed company whic
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/hostile_takeover

Greenmail
  A greenmail is one of the strategies used to avoid hostile takeover. Greenmail is used when significant stake of an acquisition target is held by hostile company which tries to overtake the control of company tar
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/greenmail

Organic Growth
  An organic growth is a growth of the company when inner resources are used to get larger market share. Also organic growth may be achieved together with growth of the whole market segment or entering new markets
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/organic_growth

Synergy
  Synergy is a popular term among management of the companies as well as among M&A participants. In finance synergy means a savings in some COSTs when several units are merged. The theory says it should be like
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/synergy

Floatation
  Floatation means going public through an IPO. If companies go public they have to get listed their shares on some stock exchange. Each company’s may choose any stock exchange, but normally smaller companies
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/floatation

Bullish
  Bullish is an investor's attitude when he believes that the investment market is going to rise in the near future. Most of the times this term is applied for investments in stocks, when is believed that stock mar
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/bullish

Pig (investor)
  A pig is an animal known by every farmer. However, at investing pigs are also popular yet the meaning is different.   In investment world are two kinds of animals mentioned the most: bulls and bears. Bulli
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Fund Manager
  A fund manager is an employee of investment management company which is responsible for the management of the fund’s assets. Most of the times, more than one person is involved in fund’s management bu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/fund_manager

Passive Investment
  Passive investment (management) is an investment style when investors skips the steps of securities picking and market timing and invests mainly in index funds that have the lowest expenses.    P
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/passive_investment

Valuation Methods
  There are three main valuation methods used for business valuation or stock valuation:  Relative valuation is very easy to use and is the fastest method. That is why this method is so popular among fina
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/valuation_methods

Business Valuation Methods
  Business valuation methods are not much different from general valuation methods. Maybe business valuation is more difficult and complicated than real estate valuation but the methods are the same only the differ
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/business_valuation_methods

Investment Fund Management
  Investment fund management is not much different from simply investment management or asset management. Investment fund is large investment portfolio and the composition of that portfolio depends on particular fu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_fund_management

Bid-Ask Spread
  Bid-ask spread is the difference between the bid price and the ask price, or in other words it is a difference between the best offered price of a seller and the best given price by a buyer for a particular secur
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/bidask_spread

Investor Education
  Investor education is very important task to make investors achieve better results. It is hard to become the best specialist of investment management in short time but every investor can learn to avoid the main m
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investor_education

Investment Management Salaries
  The media always pay a lot of attention to investment management salaries and maybe those salaries are worth it. Investment management business as investment management consulting or investment fund management re
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_salaries

Investment Management Consultations
  Investment management consulting is part of investment management business that helps for investors to manage their investments more effectively. Investment management is one of the most crucial step in personal
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/investment_management_consultations

Overvalued Stocks
  Overvalued stocks are those stocks that COST in stock market more than their target price is. Target price of the stock is calculated market value of a stock using stock valuation methods. The most popular method
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/overvalued_stocks

Income Statement
  Income statement (also called statement of operations, profit and loss statement, P&L or other) is one of three main financial statements reported by the companies periodically. Income statement exposes compa
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/income_statement

Profit
  Profit is a term used in various finance fields and may have many meanings. Basically profit is the positive difference between the income and COSTs. If COSTs are higher than income, then instead of profit loss w
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/profit

Gross Income
  Gross income (gross profit) is equal to company’s revenue minus all COST of goods sold (COGS). Gross income is just one type of income; other types of income are operating income, pre-tax income or net inco
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/gross_income

Gross Margin
  Gross margin is profitability percentage that shows the ratio between gross income and revenue. Gross margin is usually calculated when there is a need to compare company’s competiveness and effectiveness i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/gross_margin

EBIT
  EBIT (also called Earnings Before Interest and Taxes) is a financial indicator of the company that provides information about company’s profitability while ignoring the impact of capital structure and corpo
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/ebit

Cash Flow Coverage Ratio
  Cash flow coverage ratio measures company’s ability to repay its debt. This ratio compares operating cash flow of the company to its debts.  If ratio is low (lower than 0.2), it may indicate potential
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cash_flow_coverage_ratio

Strategic Financial Planning
  Strategic financial planning is a bit different from standard financial planning because standard financial planning focuses on a budget which is detailed estimation of financial statements when strategic financi
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/strategic_financial_planning

Asset Turnover Ratio
  Asset turnover ratio compares company’s sales and assets in order to identify the efficiency of assets used in the business. In simple words, it shows show much of sales are generated by company’s ass
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/asset_turnover_ratio

Working Capital Management
  Why Working Capital Is Important? Working capital is one of the main parts of company’s finances and every manager, even of the small company, manages working capital despite the fact he knows about that o
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/working_capital_management

Earnings Estimate
  Earnings estimate is a forecast for income of the closest future period. Earnings estimate usually is calculated by the employees of analyzed company or analysts of other financial companies. Normally, earnings e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/earnings_estimate

Pro Forma
  Pro forma is a type of financial statement that reflects financial information under some conditional basis. For example, if company has discontinued some activity, it may provide normal income statement and pro
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/pro_forma

COST of Debt
  COST of debt shows what the capital COST of the company for its debt capital is. Basically company’s capital consists of two parts: debt capital and equity capital. (A mixed capital like mezzanine financing
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_debt

COST of Debt Formula
  COST of debt formula    Theoretical COST of debt formula:   Before tax COST of debt = Risk free rate + Credit risk premium  After tax COST of debt = (Risk free rate + Credit risk premiu
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_debt_formula

Before Tax COST of Debt
  Before tax COST of debt (or pretax COST of debt) usually is a standard COST of debt. When you determine the interest rate paid by the company for its debt, it is equal to debt COST before tax. However, interest e
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/before_tax_cost_of_debt

After Tax COST of Debt
  There are two types of the debt COST: ‘before tax COST of debt’ and after tax COST of debt. The only difference between those is that the first one is equal to the interest rate paid by company while
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/after_tax_cost_of_debt

Opex
  Opex (operating expense) are expenses of the business and are related to the operational activity of the company.  Basically, every company has few types of expenses: COGS (COST of sales) include COSTs t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/opex

COST of Debt Calculation
  The COST of debt is easy to calculate if they are required data. Actually, there are few methods to get the COST of debt, but some of those are more accurate some less. If you want that your result would be more
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_debt_calculation

COST of Capital
  Capital of every company consists of two parts: equity capital and debt capital (only if company has no financial debts it has only equity capital). Both these capital sources have their COSTs and this is COST of
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_of_capital

NOPAT
  NOPAT (‘net operating profit after tax’ or ‘after tax operating profit’) is equal to operating profit less taxes. It is adjusted by tax rate because the part COST of debt which is part of
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/nopat

Return on Invested Capital
  Return on invested capital (ROIC) or also called return on capital is a financial ratio employed to measure nominal company’s return that is earned by capital invested in operating asset. Basically return o
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/return_on_invested_capital

CFROI
  CFROI or cash flow return on investment is a rate of return that measures the performance of corporation based on its cash flow generation ability. CFROI is not very popular but is still used by some companies an
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cfroi

Financial Ratios
  Financial ratios are ratios that are used in financial analysis or in other words that are using financial data of a company. Such financial data usually is found in financial statements (income statement, balanc
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/financial_ratios

Accounts Payable Turnover
  Accounts payable turnover ratio shows how quickly company is paying to its suppliers for services or goods and materials. If payables turnover is very low, it may signify different reasons behind it: Company i
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/accounts_payable_turnover

Receivables Turnover
  Receivables turnover ratio (also called as accounts receivable turnover) is a financial ratio that measures how efficiently company collects its receivables. If receivables turnover is very low, it means company
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/receivables_turnover

Capital Employed
  Capital employed is a value of capital investments in a company. Basically, the capital of each company can be classified in these types of capital: Equity capital  Debt capital Working capital  
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/capital_employed

COST/Income Ratio
  COST/income ratio is very popular financial ratio in bank analysis. This ratio measures the relation of bank’s operating COSTs to operating income. Basically, lower ratio is better because means higher prof
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cost_income_ratio

Days Payable Outstanding
  ‘Days payable outstanding’ ratio shows how long it takes the company to pay its liabilities to the suppliers. The longer period means that company is not in a hurry to settle up its debts to the suppl
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/days_payable_outstanding

Days Inventory Outstanding
  ‘Days inventory outstanding’ measures how efficiently company manages its inventory. Inventory often is the main part of working capital and it is very important to managed inventory efficiently. Ther
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/days_inventory_outstanding

Cash Turnover Ratio
  Cash turnover ratio compares company’s sales to its cash and measures how effectively company is using cash assets. However, this financial ratio now is a bit outworn and is not very meaningful for most of
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/cash_turnover_ratio

Leverage
Leverage definition In finance leverage means usage of debt capital in addition to the equity capital in order to increase the profit. Increase in leverage is understood as increase in riskiness and volatility.  
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/leverage

Market Risk Premium
(Equity Risk Premium)   Every investment carries some level of risk and some level of potential return. Those two measures are closely related in investment finance and are used in CAPM which calculates COST of eq
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/market_risk_premium

Back-End Load
  Back-End Load (redemption fee) is a load fee which is similar to ‘front-end load’ but is paid when investor sells his mutual fund units instead of during the acquisition as in case of ‘front-end
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/backend_load

Front-End Load
  Front-end load (sales fee) was a very popular load fee in investment market for decades. This fee is paid by investors during the acquisition of mutual fund units and is some percentage (0%-5%) on the invested am
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/frontend_load

Load Fee
  'Load fee' is a fee that is paid during the selling process of the mutual fund. The sales load fee is also called as sales fee or distribution fee because normally it is paid by investor during sales-distribution
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/load_fee

Internal Rate of Return
  An internal rate of return (IRR) is a ratio used very often to measure a profitability of some investment project. IRR is determined as a discount rate when NPV of the project is equal to zero. If IRR is higher t
http://www.investingforbeginners.eu/internal_rate_of_return


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